Unity and diversity of executive functions: Individual differences as a window on cognitive structure

  title={Unity and diversity of executive functions: Individual differences as a window on cognitive structure},
  author={Naomi P. Friedman and Akira Miyake},
The Relationship Between Resting State Network Connectivity and Individual Differences in Executive Functions
This work decomposes EF into three factors from the unity/diversity model of EFs: Common EF, Shifting-specific EF, and Updating- specific EF, measuring each via factor scores derived from a battery of behavioral tasks completed by 250 adult participants at the time of a resting-state scan to reveal a new degree of specificity with regard to connectivity/EF relationships.
Topographical functional correlates of interindividual differences in executive functions in young healthy twins
Executive functions (EF) are a set of higher-order cognitive abilities that enable goal-directed behavior by controlling lower-level operations. In the brain, those functions have been traditionally
The role of prefrontal cortex in cognitive control and executive function
The relationships of CC with the general factor of psychopathology and dimensional constructs such as impulsivity in large scale developmental and adult populations are considered, as well as implications for genetic studies and RDoC approaches to psychiatric classification.
Executive functions predict verbal fluency scores in healthy participants
It is demonstrated that speech production performance is strongly linked to specific EF subdomains, but they also suggest that inter-individual differences should be taken into account.
Multidimensionality in Executive Function Profiles in Schizophrenia: a Computational Approach Using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task
Deficits in executive functions (EF) are frequently implicated in the aetiology of schizophrenia. However, no consensus exists regarding the contribution of EF to the dysfunctions observed in these
Unity and Diversity of Dysexecutive Syndromes
This chapter discusses the developmental fractionation of executive function observed in behavioral task performances, as well as the establishment of specialized neural networks supporting executive functioning in the course of development.
Neuroanatomical Correlates of the Unity and Diversity Model of Executive Function in Young Adults
Associations between individual differences in EF ability and regional neuroanatomical properties occur not only within classic brain networks thought to support EF, but also in a variety of other regions and white matter tracts.
Characterising the unity and diversity of executive functions in a within-subject fMRI study
Four tasks derived from the same basic paradigm for updating, inhibition, switching, and dual-tasking demonstrate that the functional neuroanatomical correlates of the four investigated EFs show unity as well as diversity.


The Nature and Organization of Individual Differences in Executive Functions
It is argued that individual differences in EFs, as measured with simple laboratory tasks, show both unity and diversity and are related to various clinically and societally important phenomena, and show some developmental stability.
The Unity and Diversity of Executive Functions and Their Contributions to Complex “Frontal Lobe” Tasks: A Latent Variable Analysis
The results suggest that it is important to recognize both the unity and diversity ofExecutive functions and that latent variable analysis is a useful approach to studying the organization and roles of executive functions.
Individual differences in executive functions are almost entirely genetic in origin.
A multivariate twin study of 3 executive functions (inhibiting dominant responses, updating working memory representations, and shifting between task sets), measured as latent variables, examined why people vary in these executive control abilities and why they are correlated but separable from a behavioral genetic perspective.
The structure of executive function in 3-year-olds.
Toward a taxonomy of attention shifting: Individual differences in fMRI during multiple shift types
A model of cognitive-emotional interaction in attention shifting is discussed, in which reward-related signals in the VMPFC guide efficient selection of tasks in the lateral prefrontal and parietal cortices.
Genes Unite Executive Functions in Childhood
General EF may serve as an early life marker of genetic propensity for a range of functions and pathologies later in life, and correlations among the four EF domains are entirely attributable to shared genetic etiology.
Not All Executive Functions Are Related to Intelligence
Examination of the relations of fluid and crystallized intelligence and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale IQ to three separable EFs in young adults indicates that intelligence measures differentially relate to these three EFs, suggesting that current intelligence measures do not equally assess a wide range of executive control abilities likely required for many “intelligent” behaviors.
Toward a comprehensive understanding of executive cognitive function in implicit racial bias.
The main findings were that measures of implicit bias were only weakly intercorrelated, and EF and estimates of automatic processes both predicted implicit bias and also interacted, such that the relation between automatic processes and bias expression was reduced at higher levels of EF.