# Unitary Rules for Black Hole Evaporation

@article{Strominger1994UnitaryRF, title={Unitary Rules for Black Hole Evaporation}, author={A. Strominger}, journal={arXiv: High Energy Physics - Theory}, year={1994} }

Hawking has proposed non-unitary rules for computing the probabilistic outcome of black hole formation. It is shown that the usual interpretation of these rules violates the superposition principle and energy conservation. Refinements of Hawking's rules are found which restore both the superposition principle and energy conservation, but leave completely unaltered Hawking's prediction of a thermal emission spectrum prior to the endpoint of black hole evaporation. These new rules violate… Expand

#### 24 Citations

Black hole evolution

- Physics
- 1994

Black hole formation and evaporation is studied in the semiclassical approximation in simple 1+1-dimensional models, with emphasis on issues related to Hawking's information paradox. Exact… Expand

Unitarity and the information problem in an explicit model of black hole evaporation

- Physics
- 2020

We consider the black hole information problem in an explicitly defined spacetime modeling black hole evaporation. Using this context we review basic aspects of the problem, with a particular effort… Expand

One-Shot Decoupling and Page Curves from a Dynamical Model for Black Hole Evaporation.

- Physics, Medicine
- Physical review letters
- 2016

It is argued that information transfer and the emergence of Page curves is a robust feature of any multilinear interaction Hamiltonian with a bounded spectrum. Expand

Time Dependence of Hawking Radiation Entropy

- Physics
- 2013

If a black hole starts in a pure quantum state and evaporates completely by a unitary process, the von Neumann entropy of the Hawking radiation initially increases and then decreases back to zero… Expand

Why aren't black holes infinitely produced?

- Physics, Medicine
- Physical review. D, Particles and fields
- 1995

It is argued that the rate is proportional to the thermodynamic quantity Tr e-H, where the trace is over the internal states of a black hole; this is in agreement with estimates from an effective field theory for black holes. Expand

Evaporation of 2-Dimensional Black Holes

- Physics
- 2011

We present a detailed analysis of results from a new study of the quantum evaporation of Callan-Giddings-Harvey-Strominger (CGHS) black holes within the mean-field approximation. The CGHS model is a… Expand

The Black Hole Information Problem

- Physics
- 2017

The black hole information problem has been a challenge since Hawking’s original 1975 paper. It led to the discovery of AdS/CFT, which gave a partial resolution of the paradox. However, recent… Expand

Vacuum-Bounded States and the Entropy of Black Hole Evaporation

- Physics
- 1997

We call a state ``vacuum bounded'' if every measurement performed outside a specified interior region gives the same result as in the vacuum. We compute the maximum entropy of a vacuum-bounded state… Expand

TASI lectures on black holes in string theory

- Physics
- 2000

This is a write-up of introductory lectures on black holes in string theory given at TASI-99. Topics discussed include: Black holes, thermodynamics and the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, the information… Expand

Entropy of localized states and black hole evaporation

- Physics
- 1997

We call a state {open_quotes}vacuum bounded{close_quotes} if every measurement performed outside a specified interior region gives the same result as in the vacuum. We compute the maximum entropy of… Expand

#### References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 35 REFERENCES

Possible resolution of the black hole information puzzle.

- Physics, Medicine
- Physical review. D, Particles and fields
- 1994

It is argued that the decay rate in the black hole rest frame is necessarily proportional to $e^{-S_{tot}}$, where $S_tot$ is the total entropy produced during the evaporation process, entailing a very long-lived remnant. Expand

Les Houches lectures on black holes

- Physics
- 1994

Contents:
1. Introduction
2. Causal Structure and Penrose Diagrams: Minkowski Space; 1+1 Dimensional Minkowski Space; Schwarzchild Black Holes; Gravitational Collapse and the Vaidya Spacetimes;… Expand

Comment On A Proposal By Strominger

- Physics
- 1994

Strominger has proposed an interesting concrete realization of Hawking's idea that information is lost in black hole evaporation. In this note we demonstrate that a straightforward interpretation of… Expand

Nucl

- Phys. B307 (1988) 864; S.B. Giddings and A. Strominger, Nucl. Phys. B307
- 1988

Phys

- Rev. D14
- 1976

A

- Strominger and L. Thorlacius, unpublished
- 1994

Nucl

- Phys. B418 (1994) 305, hep-th/931107, S. Das and S. Mukherji, Phys. Rev. D50 (1994) 930; A. Strominger and L. Thorlacius,Phys. Rev. D50
- 1994

Nucl

- Phys. B242 (1984) 345; I. Affleck and J. Sagi, Nucl. Phys. B417
- 1994

Phys

- Rev. D49 (1994) 4078; Phys. Rev. D49
- 1994

Phys. Rev. D49 Phys. Rev

- Phys. Rev. D49 Phys. Rev
- 1994