A 55 year-old patient developed loss of vision in his right eye over a period of a few weeks with the clinical finding of uveitis and papillaedema. Subsequently, also the left eye was affected by a marked deterioration of vision. The neurological findings were normal. The laboratory findings showed a marked elevation of the ESR (> 100 mm within the first hour) and protein electrophoreses showed changes suggestive of chronic inflammation. Analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid revealed a lymphocytic meningitis with 180/3 cells; the positive serological and liquor findings for TPHA and FTA led to the definite diagnosis of neurosyphilis. Treatment intravenously with 3 x 4 million units penicillin G daily for a fortnight proved curative. Vision of the left eye recovered fully, but the ophthalmological changes in the right eye were irreversible. This case shows that even today the differential diagnosis of syphilis must be considered with loss of vision of doubtful aetiology and uveitis.