Unified Simulations of Planetary Formation and Atmospheric Evolution: Effects of Pebble Accretion, Giant Impacts, and Stellar Irradiation on Super-Earth Formation

  title={Unified Simulations of Planetary Formation and Atmospheric Evolution: Effects of Pebble Accretion, Giant Impacts, and Stellar Irradiation on Super-Earth Formation},
  author={Masahiro Ogihara and Yasunori Hori},
  journal={The Astrophysical Journal},
A substantial number of super-Earths have been discovered, and atmospheres of transiting super-Earths have also been observed by transmission spectroscopy. Several lines of observational evidence indicate that most super-Earths do not possess massive H$_2$/He atmospheres. However, accretion and retention of less massive atmospheres on super-Earths challenge planet formation theory. We consider the following three mechanisms: (i) envelope heating by pebble accretion, (ii) mass loss during giant… 
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