Unfreezing change as three steps: Rethinking Kurt Lewin’s legacy for change management

  title={Unfreezing change as three steps: Rethinking Kurt Lewin’s legacy for change management},
  author={Stephen Cummings and Todd Bridgman and Kenneth G. Brown},
  journal={Human Relations},
  pages={33 - 60}
Kurt Lewin’s ‘changing as three steps’ (unfreezing → changing → refreezing) is regarded by many as the classic or fundamental approach to managing change. Lewin has been criticized by scholars for over-simplifying the change process and has been defended by others against such charges. However, what has remained unquestioned is the model’s foundational significance. It is sometimes traced (if it is traced at all) to the first article ever published in Human Relations. Based on a comparison of… 

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