Unexpected rewards induce dopamine-dependent positive emotion–like state changes in bumblebees

@article{Perry2016UnexpectedRI,
  title={Unexpected rewards induce dopamine-dependent positive emotion–like state changes in bumblebees},
  author={Clint J Perry and Luigi Baciadonna and Lars Chittka},
  journal={Science},
  year={2016},
  volume={353},
  pages={1529 - 1531}
}
Whether invertebrates exhibit positive emotion–like states and what mechanisms underlie such states remain poorly understood. We demonstrate that bumblebees exhibit dopamine-dependent positive emotion–like states across behavioral contexts. After training with one rewarding and one unrewarding cue, bees that received pretest sucrose responded in a positive manner toward ambiguous cues. In a second experiment, pretest consumption of sucrose solution resulted in a shorter time to reinitiate… 
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