Unethical informed consent caused by overlooking poorly measured nocebo effects

@article{Howick2020UnethicalIC,
  title={Unethical informed consent caused by overlooking poorly measured nocebo effects},
  author={Jeremy Howick},
  journal={Journal of Medical Ethics},
  year={2020},
  volume={47},
  pages={590 - 594}
}
  • J. Howick
  • Published 14 February 2020
  • Medicine
  • Journal of Medical Ethics
Unlike its friendly cousin the placebo effect, the nocebo effect (the effect of expecting a negative outcome) has been almost ignored. Epistemic and ethical confusions related to its existence have gone all but unnoticed. Contrary to what is often asserted, adverse events following from taking placebo interventions are not necessarily nocebo effects; they could have arisen due to natural history. Meanwhile, ethical informed consent (in clinical trials and clinical practice) has centred almost… 
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