Unequal Participation: Democracy's Unresolved Dilemma Presidential Address, American Political Science Association, 1996

@article{Lijphart1997UnequalPD,
  title={Unequal Participation: Democracy's Unresolved Dilemma Presidential Address, American Political Science Association, 1996},
  author={Arend Lijphart},
  journal={American Political Science Review},
  year={1997},
  volume={91},
  pages={1 - 14}
}
  • Arend Lijphart
  • Published 1 March 1997
  • Economics
  • American Political Science Review
Low voter turnout is a serious democratic problem for five reasons: (1) It means unequal turnout that is systematically biased against less well-to-do citizens. (2) Unequal turnout spells unequal political influence. (3) U.S. voter turnout is especially low, but, measured as percent of voting-age population, it is also relatively low in most other countries. (4) Turnout in midterm, regional, local, and supranational elections—less salient but by no means unimportant elections—tends to be… 

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