Unequal Participation: Democracy's Unresolved Dilemma Presidential Address, American Political Science Association, 1996

  title={Unequal Participation: Democracy's Unresolved Dilemma Presidential Address, American Political Science Association, 1996},
  author={Arend Lijphart},
  journal={American Political Science Review},
  pages={1 - 14}
  • Arend Lijphart
  • Published 1 March 1997
  • Economics
  • American Political Science Review
Low voter turnout is a serious democratic problem for five reasons: (1) It means unequal turnout that is systematically biased against less well-to-do citizens. (2) Unequal turnout spells unequal political influence. (3) U.S. voter turnout is especially low, but, measured as percent of voting-age population, it is also relatively low in most other countries. (4) Turnout in midterm, regional, local, and supranational elections—less salient but by no means unimportant elections—tends to be… 

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  • G. Powell
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    American Political Science Review
  • 1986
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  • Economics, Political Science
    American Political Science Review
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Policy Differences Between Voters and Non-Voters in American Elections

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The Effects of Primaries and Statewide Races on Voter Turnout

  • R. W. Boyd
  • Political Science
    The Journal of Politics
  • 1989
The decision to vote is affected by two elements of the election context. One is the frequency of elections. Presidential and state primaries divert resources away from the general election and

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