Underwater Hearing and Sound Localization with and without an Air Interface

@article{Shupak2005UnderwaterHA,
  title={Underwater Hearing and Sound Localization with and without an Air Interface},
  author={Avi Shupak and Zohara Sharoni and Yoav Yanir and Yoav Keynan and Yechezkel Alfie and Pinchas Halpern},
  journal={Otology \& Neurotology},
  year={2005},
  volume={26},
  pages={127-130}
}
Hypothesis: Underwater hearing acuity and sound localization are improved by the presence of an air interface around the pinnae and inside the external ear canals. Background: Hearing threshold and the ability to localize sound sources are reduced underwater. The resonance frequency of the external ear is lowered when the external ear canal is filled with water, and the impedance-matching ability of the middle ear is significantly reduced due to elevation of the ambient pressure, the water-mass… 

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