Underwater Bipedal Locomotion by Octopuses in Disguise

  title={Underwater Bipedal Locomotion by Octopuses in Disguise},
  author={C. L. Huffard and Farnis B. Boneka and R. Full},
  pages={1927 - 1927}
Here we report bipedal movement with a hydrostatic skeleton. Two species of octopus walk on two alternating arms using a rolling gait and appear to use the remaining six arms for camouflage. Octopus marginatus resembles a coconut, and Octopus (Abdopus) aculeatus, a clump of floating algae. Using underwater video, we analyzed the kinematics of their strides. Each arm was on the sand for more than half of the stride, qualifying this behavior as a form of walking. 
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Locomotion by Abdopus aculeatus (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae): walking the line between primary and secondary defenses
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  • Biology, Medicine
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  • 2006
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A taxonomy of the movement patterns of the 8 flexible arms of octopuses is constructed, which appears to be based on radial symmetry, relative equipotentiality of all arms, relative independence of each arm, and separability of components within the arm. Expand
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Six theories of bipedal walking are reviewed, suggesting each has some measure of support, and there are other important theories of locomotion which have not been covered in this review. Expand
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A cryptic pattern, the flamboyant, appears in early settling stages as a generalized response to disturbance, both to a new environment and to the approach of threatening shapes. Expand
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The means by which muscular-hydrostats produce elongation, shortening, bending and torsion are discussed. Expand
Control of Octopus Arm Extension by a Peripheral Motor Program
It is shown that arm extensions can be evoked mechanically or electrically in arms whose connection with the brain has been severed, suggesting that the basic motor program for voluntary movement is embedded within the neural circuitry of the arm itself. Expand
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