Underwater Bipedal Locomotion by Octopuses in Disguise

  title={Underwater Bipedal Locomotion by Octopuses in Disguise},
  author={Christine L. Huffard and Farnis B. Boneka and Robert J. Full},
  pages={1927 - 1927}
Here we report bipedal movement with a hydrostatic skeleton. Two species of octopus walk on two alternating arms using a rolling gait and appear to use the remaining six arms for camouflage. Octopus marginatus resembles a coconut, and Octopus (Abdopus) aculeatus, a clump of floating algae. Using underwater video, we analyzed the kinematics of their strides. Each arm was on the sand for more than half of the stride, qualifying this behavior as a form of walking. 

Bipedal locomotion in Octopus vulgaris: A complementary observation and some preliminary considerations

A further observation of a defense behavior that encompasses both postural and locomotory elements of bipedal locomotion in this cephalopod is reported.

Bipedal locomotion by Octopus vulgaris

The bipedal locomotion of a juvenile specimen of Octopus vulgaris was documented at the Cíes Islands, located within the Atlantic Islands of Galicia National Park, on 1 June 2019.

Soft Robotics in Underwater Legged Locomotion: From Octopus–Inspired Solutions to Running Robots

The investigation started from slow speed gaits, such as the crawling locomotion of octopuses, and was followed by faster gaits such as bipedal walking and hopping, to envisage that this novel locomotion can be exploited to increase the mobility of underwater robots in the benthic realm.

Locomotion by Abdopus aculeatus (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae): walking the line between primary and secondary defenses

  • C. Huffard
  • Biology
    Journal of Experimental Biology
  • 2006
SUMMARY Speeds and variation in body form during crawling, bipedal walking, swimming and jetting by the shallow-water octopus Abdopus aculeatus were compared to explore possible interactions between

Octopus-Inspired Arm Movements

The effect of compliance on robustness of these motions to environmental variations is analyzed and the implications of the results to the motor control of cephalopods and to the development of control strategies for soft robotic systems are commented on.

Defensive tool use in a coconut-carrying octopus

A novel underwater bipedal walking soft robot bio-inspired by the coconut octopus

An underwater bipedal walking soft robot based on coconut octopus was designed, and a machine vision algorithm was used to extract the motion information for analysis, which makes an underwater soft robot more suitable for moving on uneven ground.

Octopus Motor Control-Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Neuroscience

Studies will be summarized to show that the amazing behavioral motor abilities of the octopus are achieved through a special embodied organization of its flexible body, unusual morpholo­ gy, and a unique central and peripheral distribution of its extremely large nervous system.

Octopus-inspired multi-arm robotic swimming

This work investigates the propulsive capabilities of a multi-arm robotic system under various swimming gaits, namely patterns of arm coordination, which achieve the generation of forward, as well as backward, propulsion and turning, and a lumped-element model of the robotic swimmer was used.

An ethogram for Benthic Octopods (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae).

A general ethogram for the actions of the flexible body as well as the skin displays of octopuses in the family Octopodidae is constructed, suggesting that, despite having flexible muscular hydrostat movement systems producing several behavioral units, simplicity may underlie the complexity of movement and appearance.



How do octopuses use their arms?

  • J. Mather
  • Biology
    Journal of comparative psychology
  • 1998
A taxonomy of the movement patterns of the 8 flexible arms of octopuses is constructed, which appears to be based on radial symmetry, relative equipotentiality of all arms, relative independence of each arm, and separability of components within the arm.

Theories of bipedal walking: an odyssey.

Patterns of Arm Muscle Activation Involved in Octopus Reaching Movements

The results suggest that feed-forward motor commands play an important role in the control of movement velocity and that simple adjustment of the excitation levels at the initial stages of the movement can set the velocity profile of the whole movement.

Tongues, tentacles and trunks: the biomechanics of movement in muscular‐hydrostats

The means by which muscular-hydrostats produce elongation, shortening, bending and torsion are discussed.

Control of Octopus Arm Extension by a Peripheral Motor Program

It is shown that arm extensions can be evoked mechanically or electrically in arms whose connection with the brain has been severed, suggesting that the basic motor program for voluntary movement is embedded within the neural circuitry of the arm itself.

Supporting Online Material www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full

  • DC1 Materials and Methods Movies S1 and S2 11
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