Understanding the role of glycogen synthase kinase-3 in L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease.

INTRODUCTION Levodopa (L-DOPA) is the most commonly used drug for Parkinson's disease (PD), but its long-term use is associated with various complications, including L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID). Many studies have suggested that L-DOPA neurotoxicity and LID are associated with glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) activation. Areas covered: LID is caused by… (More)