Understanding the physiology and pharmacology of epidural and intrathecal opioids.

  title={Understanding the physiology and pharmacology of epidural and intrathecal opioids.},
  author={Christopher M. Bernards},
  journal={Best practice & research. Clinical anaesthesiology},
  volume={16 4},
Epidural and intrathecal opioid administration has become an important part of contemporary medical practice in a variety of clinical settings. It has been widely assumed that any opioid placed in the epidural or intrathecal spaces will produce highly selective spinally mediated analgesia that is superior to that produced by other analgesic techniques. Unfortunately, this is simply not true. In fact, multiple opioids are currently employed for spinal use despite the fact that clinical evidence… CONTINUE READING

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