Understanding the mechanisms and drivers of antimicrobial resistance

@article{Holmes2016UnderstandingTM,
  title={Understanding the mechanisms and drivers of antimicrobial resistance},
  author={Alison H. Holmes and L. Moore and Arnfinn Sundsfjord and Martin Steinbakk and Laura J. V. Piddock},
  journal={The Lancet},
  year={2016},
  volume={387},
  pages={176-187}
}
To combat the threat to human health and biosecurity from antimicrobial resistance, an understanding of its mechanisms and drivers is needed. Emergence of antimicrobial resistance in microorganisms is a natural phenomenon, yet antimicrobial resistance selection has been driven by antimicrobial exposure in health care, agriculture, and the environment. Onward transmission is affected by standards of infection control, sanitation, access to clean water, access to assured quality antimicrobials… 
Environmental antimicrobial resistance and its drivers: A potential threat to public health.
TLDR
This review provides a brief description of AMR as a global concern and the possible contribution of different environmental drivers in the transmission of antibiotic-resistant bacteria or resistant genes through various mechanisms and highlights the key knowledge gaps that hinder the environmental regulators and mitigation strategies in delivering environmental protection against AMR.
Antimicrobial Resistance: a One Health Perspective.
TLDR
WHO recently has launched new guidelines on the use of medically important antimicrobials in food-producing animals, recommending that farmers and the food industry stop using antimicroBials routinely to promote growth and prevent disease in healthy animals.
Sustainable Agriculture Reviews 46: Mitigation of Antimicrobial Resistance Vol 1 Tools and Targets
The deaths caused due to drug-resistant microbes exceed 50,000 per year worldwide and antimicrobial resistance is now being considered as one of the biggest threat to human health. The emergence and
Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria: Mechanisms, Evolution, and Persistence
TLDR
A better understanding of the critical factors that contribute to the persistence and spread of antimicrobial resistance may yield innovative perspectives on the design of such new therapeutic targets.
One Health—Its Importance in Helping to Better Control Antimicrobial Resistance
TLDR
Necessary actions include improvements in antimicrobial use, better regulation and policy, as well as improved surveillance, stewardship, infection control, sanitation, animal husbandry, and finding alternatives to antimicrobials.
Access to effective antimicrobials: a worldwide challenge
TLDR
The disease burden caused by limited access to antimicrobials, attributable to resistance to antimicrobial resistance, and the potential effect of vaccines in restricting the need for antibiotics are assessed.
Antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance: temporal and global trends in the environment
Abstract Antibiotics are antimicrobial agents that are used to treat infectious diseases and are helpful to increase life expectancy. However, nowadays, the world is facing the major problem of
Antimicrobial Stewardship: Fighting Antimicrobial Resistance and Protecting Global Public Health
TLDR
This review highlights AMR’s scale and consequences, the importance, and implications of an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) to fight resistance and protect global health.
Antimicrobial resistance – moving forward?
TLDR
The “Global Charter for the Public’s Health”, developed by the WFPHA in association with WHO, is proposed in this article as a tool for implementation of complex public health actions such as AMR.
Plant synthetic biology for producing potent phyto-antimicrobials to combat antimicrobial resistance.
TLDR
The current situation and options for addressing AMR are presented, emphasizing on the significance of phyto-antimicrobials in this apparently post-antibiotic era, and effective use of plant chassis for phy to-antIMicrobial production at industrial scales along with major SynBio tools and useful databases are discussed.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 115 REFERENCES
Access to effective antimicrobials: a worldwide challenge
TLDR
The disease burden caused by limited access to antimicrobials, attributable to resistance to antimicrobial resistance, and the potential effect of vaccines in restricting the need for antibiotics are assessed.
Spread of resistant bacteria and resistance genes from animals to humans--the public health consequences.
  • K. Mølbak
  • Biology, Medicine
    Journal of veterinary medicine. B, Infectious diseases and veterinary public health
  • 2004
The paper reviews the lines of evidence which link the use of antimicrobial drugs for food animals with the emergence of antimicrobial drug resistance in bacteria pathogenic to humans, with a
The role of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in nature.
  • R. Aminov
  • Biology, Medicine
    Environmental microbiology
  • 2009
TLDR
A broader overview of the role of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in nature from the evolutionary and ecological prospective suggests that antibiotics have evolved as another way of intra- and inter-domain communication in various ecosystems.
Controlling Antimicrobial Resistance through Targeted, Vaccine-Induced Replacement of Strains
TLDR
It is found that a combined intervention strategy can limit nosocomial outbreaks, even when vaccine efficacy is imperfect and the broader utility of vaccine-based resistance control strategies should be further explored taking into account population structure, and the resistance and transmission patterns of the pathogen.
Factors affecting the reversal of antimicrobial-drug resistance.
TLDR
It is concluded that complete eradication of antimicrobial resistance in bacterial populations following relaxed drug-selective pressures is not straightforward and resistance determinants may persist at low, but detectable, levels for many years in the absence of the corresponding drugs.
The role of the natural environment in the emergence of antibiotic resistance in gram-negative bacteria.
TLDR
Although the economics of the pharmaceutical industry continue to restrict investment in novel biomedical responses, action must be taken to avoid the conjunction of factors that promote evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance.
Persistence of Transferable Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase Resistance in the Absence of Antibiotic Pressure
TLDR
Carriage of pCT was found to impose no detectable fitness cost on various bacterial hosts and an absence of antibiotic pressure and inactivation of the antibiotic resistance gene also had no effect on plasmid persistence, conjugation frequency, or bacterial-host biology.
Antibiotic resistance-the need for global solutions.
TLDR
The global situation of antibiotic resistance, its major causes and consequences, and key areas in which action is urgently needed are described and identified.
Targeting Imperfect Vaccines against Drug-Resistance Determinants: A Strategy for Countering the Rise of Drug Resistance
TLDR
It is shown that the population-wide impact of such vaccines depends on the additional effect on resistant strains and on the overall effect (against all strains) of the vaccine, and resistance-conferring accessory gene products or resistant alleles of essential genes could be valuable as components of vaccines even if their specific protective effect is weak.
International cooperation to improve access to and sustain effectiveness of antimicrobials
TLDR
Policy makers are called on to develop, endorse, and finance new global institutional arrangements that can ensure robust implementation and bold collective action to improve access to life-saving antimicrobials.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...