Understanding the Overlap Between Positive and Negative Involuntary Cognitions Using Instrumental Earworms

  title={Understanding the Overlap Between Positive and Negative Involuntary Cognitions Using Instrumental Earworms},
  author={Ella K. Moeck and Ira E. Hyman and Melanie K. T. Takarangi},
  journal={Psychomusicology: Music, Mind, and Brain},
Involuntary cognitions—thoughts that arise spontaneously without conscious effort—are an everyday phenomenon. These cognitions include future thoughts, autobiographical memories, and, perhaps most commonly, earworms. Earworms—the experience of having a song stuck in your head—provide a window into the mind. We used earworms of instrumental music to investigate whether the likelihood of music returning involuntarily depends on the music’s emotional valence. We generalize these findings to… 

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