Understanding the Disease of Addiction

  title={Understanding the Disease of Addiction},
  author={Kathy Bettinardi-Angres and Daniel H. Angres},
  journal={Journal of Nursing Regulation},
Neurochemistry and Pharmacology of Addictions: An African Perspective
The aim of this chapter is to outline general chemical and pharmacological mechanisms involved in addictions, African participation in neuroscience research and studies as well as challenges and
Analysis of existing statistics as well as decisions of the disciplinary bodies of justice indicates the predisposition of justice representatives to alcohol dependency, which is caused by a number of reasons.
Health and Public Policy to Facilitate Effective Prevention and Treatment of Substance Use Disorders Involving Illicit and Prescription Drugs: An American College of Physicians Position Paper
This policy paper offers public policy recommendations regarding the prevention and treatment of substance use disorders involving illicit and prescription drugs and not on the clinical aspect of preventing and treating these disorders.
Concurrent Opioid and Alcohol Use Among Women Who Become Pregnant: Historical, Current, and Future Perspectives
This commentary aims to highlight the historical and current context of opioid and alcohol use during pregnancy, summarize the current knowledge, and detail future directions in how health care providers can help identify and therapeutically respond to women with concurrent opioid andalcohol use disorder.
Mindfulness and Smartphone Addiction before Going to Sleep among College Students: The Mediating Roles of Self-Control and Rumination
The findings indicated that mindfulness training is beneficial to improve the ability of self-control and reduce rumination levels, thereby inhibiting the negative impact of smartphone addiction on college students before they go to sleep, and further promoting their sleep health and mental health.
Using an Ethics of Care to Re-interpret Consent in the Management of Care for Addiction Disorders
The aim of this book is to contribute towards the humanizing of science and the promotion of knowledge and understanding.


Addiction is a brain disease, and it matters.
Recognizing addiction as a chronic, relapsing brain disorder characterized by compulsive drug seeking and use can impact society's overall health and social policy strategies and help diminish the health andsocial costs associated with drug abuse and addiction.
Addiction: a disease of learning and memory.
  • S. Hyman
  • Psychology, Biology
    The American journal of psychiatry
  • 2005
Evidence at the molecular, cellular, systems, behavioral, and computational levels of analysis is converging to suggest the view that addiction represents a pathological usurpation of the neural mechanisms of learning and memory that under normal circumstances serve to shape survival behaviors related to the pursuit of rewards and the cues that predict them.
The Definition of Alcoholism
Alcoholism is defined as a primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations and is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking.
The neural basis of addiction: a pathology of motivation and choice.
Cellular adaptations in prefrontal glutamatergic innervation of the accumbens promote the compulsive character of drug seeking in addicts by decreasing the value of natural rewards, diminishing cognitive control (choice), and enhancing glutamatorgic drive in response to drug-associated stimuli.
The genetics of alcoholism
This review highlights recent advances in translational work investigating genetic influences on alcoholism, focusing on genetic research involving corticotropin-releasing factor, glutamatergic, and opioidergic systems.
Drug addiction and its underlying neurobiological basis: neuroimaging evidence for the involvement of the frontal cortex.
An integrated model of drug addiction that encompasses intoxication, bingeing, withdrawal, and craving is proposed, and results imply that addiction connotes cortically regulated cognitive and emotional processes, which result in the overvaluing of drug reinforcers, the undervalued of alternative rein forcers, and deficits in inhibitory control for drug responses.
Stress, dysregulation of drug reward pathways, and the transition to drug dependence.
  • G. Koob, M. Kreek
  • Biology, Psychology
    The American journal of psychiatry
  • 2007
A model of the role of different levels of hormonal/brain stress activation in addiction is presented that has heuristic value for understanding individual vulnerability to drug dependence and novel treatments for the disorder.
The Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Decision-making, Impulse Control, and Loss of Willpower to Resist Drugs.
It is proposed that drugs can trigger bottom-up, involuntary signals originating from the amygdala that modulate, bias, or even hijack the goal-driven cognitive resources that are needed for the normal operation of the reflective system and for exercising the willpower to resist drugs.
Ethical issues relating to genetic research into psychiatric disorders
Abstract To understand the ethical issues related to genetic research into psychiatric disorders and behavioural traits, it is first necessary to consider whether genes are important in their
Enhanced sensitivity of pituitary beta-endorphin to ethanol in subjects at high risk of alcoholism.
It is indicated that the pituitary beta-endorphin system, but not the adrenal cortisol system, of the HR subjects shows an enhanced sensitivity to ethanol, which may be an important factor in controlling ethanol consumption.