Understanding the Complexity of Economic, Ecological, and Social Systems

@article{Holling2001UnderstandingTC,
  title={Understanding the Complexity of Economic, Ecological, and Social Systems},
  author={Crawford S. Holling},
  journal={Ecosystems},
  year={2001},
  volume={4},
  pages={390-405}
}
Hierarchies and adaptive cycles comprise the basis of ecosystems and social-ecological systems across scales. Together they form a panarchy. The panarchy describes how a healthy system can invent and experiment, benefiting from inventions that create opportunity while being kept safe from those that destabilize because of their nature or excessive exuberance. Each level is allowed to operate at its own pace, protected from above by slower, larger levels but invigorated from below by faster… 
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