Understanding the Comorbidity between Dyslexia and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

@article{Boada2012UnderstandingTC,
  title={Understanding the Comorbidity between Dyslexia and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.},
  author={Richard Boada and Erik G. Willcutt and Bruce F. Pennington},
  journal={Topics in Language Disorders},
  year={2012},
  volume={32},
  pages={264-284}
}
Dyslexia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are 2 of the most prevalent complex neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood, each affecting approximately 5% of the population in the United States. These disorders are also each comorbid with speech sound disorder and language impairment. Understanding the nature of the comorbidity among these disorders could lead to advances in developmental theory, a deeper understanding of the genetic and brain mechanisms that cause disability… 
Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Its Behavioral, Neurological, and Genetic Roots.
TLDR
This research suggests that the corticostriatal system is a strong candidate system in the etiology of ADHD, in part because of the dopaminergic system, which is known to play a role in the disorder.
Exploring the Comorbidity of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Language, Speech, and Reading Disorders
  • Psychology
  • 2012
This issue of Topics in Language Disorders (TLD) explores a common clinical experience, whereby clients present with more than one condition. This happens so frequently; we suspect it is often taken
Specific Learning Disorders and ADHD: Current Issues in Diagnosis Across Clinical and Educational Settings
TLDR
There continues to be challenges in operationalizing SLD and implementing consistent assessment practices among mental health professionals particularly when considering the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), which provides guidelines in the evaluation of SLD in school settings.
Genetic association study of dyslexia and ADHD candidate genes in a Spanish cohort: Implications of comorbid samples
TLDR
The results indicated that the significance values for some markers change depending on the phenotypic groups compared and/or when considering pair-wise marker interactions, and the quantitative trait study showed significant genetic associations with specific cognitive processes.
From the editor: Looking at attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and communication disorders from multiple angles
In this issue of Topics in Language Disorders, issue editors J. Bruce Tomblin and Kathryn L. Mueller, along with their invited authors, help readers consider relationships of
Reading outcomes of children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and dyslexia following atomoxetine treatment.
TLDR
Correlation analyses indicate that improvements in reading outcomes cannot be explained by a reduction of ADHD symptoms alone and support further exploration of the potential effects of atomoxetine on reading in children with ADHD and Dyslexia or dyslexia alone.
The multiple deficit model of dyslexia: what does it mean for identification and intervention?
TLDR
Two studies are presented that investigate the prevalence of phonological and cognitive processing deficit profiles in children with significant reading disability and the effects of those same phonology and cognitive processing skills on reading development in a sample of children that received treatment for dyslexia.
Promoting Reading Achievement in Children With Developmental Language Disorders: What Can We Learn From Research on Specific Language Impairment and Dyslexia?
  • S. Adlof
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of speech, language, and hearing research : JSLHR
  • 2020
TLDR
The purpose of this clinical focus article is to integrate research on SLI and dyslexia as well as advocate for the consideration of comorbidities in future research and clinical practice.
The Scope and Nature of Reading Comprehension Impairments in School-Aged Children with Higher-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder
TLDR
Results indicated that students with HFASD performed significantly lower on the majority of the reading and language tasks as compared to TD and ADHD groups, and structural equation models suggested that greater ASD symptomatology was related to poorer reading comprehension outcomes.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 116 REFERENCES
Examining the Comorbidity of Language Impairment and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Language impairment (LI) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are 2 relatively common developmental disorders that have been shown to have high rates of co-occurrence in a number of
Comorbidity of ADHD and Dyslexia
TLDR
The article focuses on the link between RD and ADHD from an epidemiological, genetic, neurofunctional, neuropsychological, and therapeutic perspective and summarizes the characteristics of the comorbid phenotype.
From single to multiple deficit models of developmental disorders
Processing Speed Deficits in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Reading Disability
TLDR
The results suggest that a general PS deficit exists in both clinical groups compared to controls, although children with RD demonstrate greater PS deficits than children with ADHD.
Twin study of the etiology of comorbidity between reading disability and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
TLDR
Individuals with RD were significantly more likely than individuals without RD to exhibit elevations on both symptom dimensions, but the difference was larger for inattention than hyp/imp.
Comorbidity of Reading Disability and Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder
TLDR
The hyperactive and impulsive behaviors exhibited by boys with RD may be more disruptive than the inattentive behavior exhibited by girls and may therefore precipitate more frequent referrals for clinical attention.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Understanding comorbidity: A twin study of reading disability and attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder
  • E. Willcutt, B. Pennington, R. Olson, J. Defries
  • Psychology
    American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics
  • 2007
TLDR
Reading difficulties and ADHD symptoms were more highly heritable if the proband met criteria for both disorders versus RD or ADHD alone, suggesting that future molecular genetic analyses of comorbid RD + ADHD may facilitate the identification of susceptibility genes for RD, ADHD, and theirComorbidity.
Psychiatric comorbidity associated with DSM-IV ADHD in a nonreferred sample of twins.
TLDR
The results provide support for the discriminant validity of the dimensions and subtypes of DSM-IV ADHD and suggest that clinicians should carefully screen for comorbid disorders as part of a comprehensive assessment of ADHD.
...
...