Understanding botulinum toxin. Surgical anatomy of the frown, forehead, and periocular region.

@article{Wieder1998UnderstandingBT,
  title={Understanding botulinum toxin. Surgical anatomy of the frown, forehead, and periocular region.},
  author={J M Wieder and Ronald L. Moy},
  journal={Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]},
  year={1998},
  volume={24 11},
  pages={1172-4}
}
BACKGROUND Cosmetic denervation of hyperfunctional facial lines using botulinum toxin (Botox, Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA) has gained growing popularity over recent years. Understanding the clinical use and effects of botulinum toxin requires a thorough understanding of the muscular anatomy of the treatment areas. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this article is to review the anatomy of the frown, forehead, and periocular regions. Function of individual muscles is discussed to understand proper… CONTINUE READING

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