Underground signals carried through common mycelial networks warn neighbouring plants of aphid attack.

@article{Babikova2013UndergroundSC,
  title={Underground signals carried through common mycelial networks warn neighbouring plants of aphid attack.},
  author={Zděnka Babíková and Lucy Gilbert and Toby J. A. Bruce and Michael A. Birkett and John C. Caulfield and Christine Woodcock and John Anthony Pickett and David Johnson},
  journal={Ecology letters},
  year={2013},
  volume={16 7},
  pages={
          835-43
        }
}
The roots of most land plants are colonised by mycorrhizal fungi that provide mineral nutrients in exchange for carbon. Here, we show that mycorrhizal mycelia can also act as a conduit for signalling between plants, acting as an early warning system for herbivore attack. Insect herbivory causes systemic changes in the production of plant volatiles, particularly methyl salicylate, making bean plants, Vicia faba, repellent to aphids but attractive to aphid enemies such as parasitoids. We… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

How rapid is aphid-induced signal transfer between plants via common mycelial networks?
TLDR
This work determines the speed of aphid-induced signal transfer between plants infested with aphids and neighboring Aphid-free plants that were either connected or unconnected to the donor via a common mycelial network.
Underground allies: How and why do mycelial networks help plants defend themselves?
TLDR
The potential fitness benefits for mycorrhizal fungi are focused on and hypothetical scenarios in which signal transfer via CMNs is modulated in order to acquire the most benefit for the fungus for minimal cost are outlined.
Common Mycorrhizae Network: A Review of the Theories and Mechanisms Behind Underground Interactions
Most terrestrial plants establish symbiotic associations with mycorrhizal fungi for accessing essential plant nutrients. Mycorrhizal fungi have been frequently reported to interconnect plants via a
Terpenoids in plant and arbuscular mycorrhiza‐reinforced defence against herbivorous insects
TLDR
Improved understanding of the roles of terpenoids in plant and AM defences against herbivory and of interplant signalling in natural communities has significant implications for sustainable management of pests in agricultural ecosystems.
Hijacking common mycorrhizal networks for herbivore-induced defence signal transfer between tomato plants
TLDR
Results indicate that plants are able to hijack CMNs for herbivore-induced defence signal transfer and interplant defence communication.
Root signals that mediate mutualistic interactions in the rhizosphere.
Priming and filtering of anti-herbivore defenses among Nicotiana attenuata plants connected by mycorrhizal networks.
TLDR
It is demonstrated that AMF colonization alone does not enhance systemic defense responses, but that sectors of systemic responses in leaves can be primed by CMNs, suggesting that CMNs can transmit and even filter defense signaling among connected plants.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 495 REFERENCES
Interplant Communication of Tomato Plants through Underground Common Mycorrhizal Networks
TLDR
This finding indicates that CMNs may function as a plant-plant underground communication conduit whereby disease resistance and induced defence signals can be transferred between the healthy and pathogen-infected neighbouring plants, suggesting that plants can ‘eavesdrop’ on defence signals from the Pathogen-challenged neighbours through CMNs to activate defences before being attacked themselves.
Do interactions between plant roots and the rhizosphere affect parasitoid behaviour?
TLDR
The hypothesis that an arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis makes tomato plants significantly more attractive towards aphid parasitoids is tested and a direct link between arbuscules and parasitism rates is not demonstrated.
Plant stress signalling: understanding and exploiting plant-plant interactions.
TLDR
Signalling discoveries within the rhizosphere seem set to extend approaches into new ways of controlling weeds, by exploiting the elusive potential of allelopathy, but through signalling rather than by direct physiological effects.
Mycorrhiza-Induced Resistance and Priming of Plant Defenses
TLDR
An overview of the impact on interactions between mycorrhizal plants and pathogens, herbivores, and parasitic plants, and the current knowledge of the underlying mechanisms is given, focusing on the priming of jasmonate-regulated plant defense mechanisms that play a central role in the induction of resistance by arbuscularmycorrhiza.
Aphid-plant interactions: a review
TLDR
This review summarizes the main aspects of plant-aphid interactions, focusing on those issues that can have an economic application and takes advantage of different types of resistance in order to enhance the sustainable control of these phytophagous insects.
How caterpillar-damaged plants protect themselves by attracting parasitic wasps.
TLDR
The studies on the phenomena of herbivore-induced emissions of volatiles in corn and cotton plants and studies conducted by others indicate that the clarity of the volatile signals is high, as they are unique for herbivor damage, produced in relatively large amounts, and easily distinguishable from background odors.
The magnitude and control of carbon transfer between plants linked by a common mycorrhizal network
TLDR
The view, transfer via a common mycorrhizal network (CMN), is that the evidence for this remains equi- paper itself, and that theEvidence for this remained equivocally important, however, there are difficulties Key words: Arbuscular myCorrhiza, carbon, common in quantifying the amounts of resource transferred via mycor Rhizal Network, ectomycorrhiza.
Specific herbivore-induced volatiles defend plants and determine insect community composition in the field.
TLDR
It is found that inducible S-linalool attracted predators and parasitoids as well as chewing herbivores, but repelled the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens, a major pest, implying that the manipulation of volatile emissions in crops has great potential for the control of pest populations.
Recruitment of entomopathogenic nematodes by insect-damaged maize roots
TLDR
The first identification of an insect-induced belowground plant signal, (E)-β-caryophyllene, which strongly attracts an entomopathogenic nematode, is reported, which should help enhance the efficacy of nematodes as biological control agents against root pests like D. virgifera.
...
...