Underground networking

  title={Underground networking},
  author={Marcel van der Heijden},
  pages={290 - 291}
Fungal networks transfer carbon between forest trees [Also see Report by Klein et al.] Almost all land plants, including most trees, shrubs, and herbs, form symbiotic associations with mycorrhizal fungi (1). These soil fungi acquire nutrients that they transfer to their plant hosts in exchange for carbon (see the photo). Plants in natural vegetation can acquire up to 80% of nitrogen and phosphorus from their mycorrhizal associates (2). Individual mycorrhizal fungi can simultaneously colonize… 
Common Mycorrhizae Network: A Review of the Theories and Mechanisms Behind Underground Interactions
Most terrestrial plants establish symbiotic associations with mycorrhizal fungi for accessing essential plant nutrients. Mycorrhizal fungi have been frequently reported to interconnect plants via a
Experimentally Testing Effects of Mycorrhizal Networks on Plant-Plant Interactions and Distinguishing Among Mechanisms
It is suggested that progress on the debate will only be made through more thorough testing of alternative mechanisms besides plant-to-plant carbon flow, especially coupled with experimental manipulations of CMNs to test for consequences on specific aspects of plant community ecological processes.
Plant-associated fungal biofilms - knowns and unknowns.
The current state of knowledge of fungal biofilms and the different pivotal ecological roles they impart in the context of disease are provided through leveraging evidence across medically important fungi, secondary metabolite production, plant beneficial functions and climate change.
Mathematical model of forests: Understories and mycorrhizal networks
Abstract We extend the Eco-strain Model of a Forest, presented previously and based on analogy with continuous media physics, to include the understory Plant Community and the underground Mycorrhizal
Significance of mycorrhizal associations for the performance of N2-fixing Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.)
The current knowledge on the benefits of the association of Black Locust with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is summarized with the aim of providing future research directions on how this symbiotic partnership is involved in a tripartite symbiotic association including rhizobia.
Root foraging strategies and nutrient cycling : study on the functional role of the horizontal exploration of soil by plants
Plant nutrition depends on complementary mechanisms : the development of root systems, root uptake and plant ability to control nutrient cycling, e.g. through exudation. The aim of this thesis is to
Draft Genomes and Comparative Analysis of Seven Mangrove Rhizosphere-Associated Fungi Isolated From Kandelia obovata and Acanthus ilicifolius
Mangroves are one of the most productive and biologically diverse ecosystems, with unique plants, animals, and microorganisms adapted to the harsh coastal environments. Although fungi are widely
New Screening Strategies for Dinitrogen Fixation in Soybean
This review presents different strategies, both conventional and molecular, that have been used for developing new improved lines using traits that are directly and indirectly related to nitrogen fixation activity during the plant growth cycle.
Microbiome-on-a-Chip: New Frontiers in Plant-Microbiota Research.
How microfluidic - or 'Microbiome-on-a-Chip' - technology could help to shed light on relationships between microbes and hosts, opening new frontiers in plant-microbiota research is highlighted.
  • 2021
This paper explores the relationship between conflict in the urban environment and natural systems of resiliency found in forests and jungles. Studying the different accounts of inhabitants of cities


Belowground carbon trade among tall trees in a temperate forest
Isotopic analysis shows that up to 40% of carbon in fine roots of temperate forest trees may be derived from neighbors, and stable carbon isotope labeling to individual tree canopies shows that carbon assimilated by 40-meter-tall spruce is traded over to neighboring beech, larch, and pine via overlapping root spheres.
Carbon transfer between plants and its control in networks of arbuscular mycorrhizas
A mycocentric view of the phenomenon of interplant C transfer is proposed, in which the fungal colonies within roots are seen as parts of an extended mycelium between which the fungus moves resources depending on the dynamics of its own growth.
Net transfer of carbon between ectomycorrhizal tree species in the field
Different plant species can be compatible with the same species of mycorrhizal fungi, and be connected to one another by a common mycelium,. Transfer of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus, through
Mycorrhizal ecology and evolution: the past, the present, and the future.
Large-scale molecular surveys have provided novel insights into the diversity, spatial and temporal dynamics of mycorrhizal fungal communities, and network theory makes it possible to analyze interactions between plant-fungal partners as complex underground multi-species networks.
Global diversity and geography of soil fungi
Diversity of most fungal groups peaked in tropical ecosystems, but ectomycorrhizal fungi and several fungal classes were most diverse in temperate or boreal ecosystems, and manyfungal groups exhibited distinct preferences for specific edaphic conditions (such as pH, calcium, or phosphorus).
Regulation of resource exchange in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.
Five arguments are presented that challenge the importance of reciprocally regulated exchange, and thereby market dynamics, for resource exchange in the AM symbiosis, and suggest that such reciprocity is only found in a subset of symbionts, under specific conditions.
Carbon flow in the rhizosphere: carbon trading at the soil–root interface
Due to the importance of rhizodeposition in regulating ecosystem functioning, it is critical that future research focuses on resolving the quantitative importance of the different C and N fluxes operating in the rhizosphere and the ways in which these vary spatially and temporally.
Carbon limitation in trees
1 The ongoing enrichment of the atmosphere with CO2 raises the question of whether growth of forest trees, which represent close to 90 global biomass carbon, is still carbon limited at current
Carbon Flux and Growth in Mature Deciduous Forest Trees Exposed to Elevated CO2
Free air CO2 release in combination with a canopy crane found an immediate and sustained enhancement of carbon flux through 35-meter-tall temperate forest trees when exposed to elevated CO2, but there was no overall stimulation in stem growth and leaf litter production after 4 years.
Estimation of the biomass and seasonal growth of external mycelium of ectomycorrhizal fungi in the field.
The biomass of EM mycelium in the soil was in the same range as the biomass of fine roots and peaks of mycelial growth coincided with periods of maximum growth of fine-roots.