Underground networking

  title={Underground networking},
  author={Marcel van der Heijden},
  pages={290 - 291}
Fungal networks transfer carbon between forest trees [Also see Report by Klein et al.] Almost all land plants, including most trees, shrubs, and herbs, form symbiotic associations with mycorrhizal fungi (1). These soil fungi acquire nutrients that they transfer to their plant hosts in exchange for carbon (see the photo). Plants in natural vegetation can acquire up to 80% of nitrogen and phosphorus from their mycorrhizal associates (2). Individual mycorrhizal fungi can simultaneously colonize… 

Common Mycorrhizae Network: A Review of the Theories and Mechanisms Behind Underground Interactions

Most terrestrial plants establish symbiotic associations with mycorrhizal fungi for accessing essential plant nutrients. Mycorrhizal fungi have been frequently reported to interconnect plants via a

Experimentally Testing Effects of Mycorrhizal Networks on Plant-Plant Interactions and Distinguishing Among Mechanisms

It is suggested that progress on the debate will only be made through more thorough testing of alternative mechanisms besides plant-to-plant carbon flow, especially coupled with experimental manipulations of CMNs to test for consequences on specific aspects of plant community ecological processes.

Plant-associated fungal biofilms - knowns and unknowns.

The current state of knowledge of fungal biofilms and the different pivotal ecological roles they impart in the context of disease are provided through leveraging evidence across medically important fungi, secondary metabolite production, plant beneficial functions and climate change.

Mathematical model of forests: Understories and mycorrhizal networks

Root foraging strategies and nutrient cycling : study on the functional role of the horizontal exploration of soil by plants

Plant nutrition depends on complementary mechanisms : the development of root systems, root uptake and plant ability to control nutrient cycling, e.g. through exudation. The aim of this thesis is to

Draft Genomes and Comparative Analysis of Seven Mangrove Rhizosphere-Associated Fungi Isolated From Kandelia obovata and Acanthus ilicifolius

Seven mangrove-associated fungal genomes are reported and their carbohydrate active enzymes and secondary metabolites (SM) genes with those of non-mangrove fungi are compared, and the results suggest that there are differences in genetic information among fungi in different habitats.

New Screening Strategies for Dinitrogen Fixation in Soybean

This review presents different strategies, both conventional and molecular, that have been used for developing new improved lines using traits that are directly and indirectly related to nitrogen fixation activity during the plant growth cycle.

We have always done it wrong: the city as complex network, superorganism and more-than-human sentient being. An experiment in interdisciplinary

-----ABSTRACT This paper draws on an experiment in interdisciplinary pedagogy, which took place in the Winter 2019, during a course on “Digital Technology and Society” at the University of Toronto.



Belowground carbon trade among tall trees in a temperate forest

Isotopic analysis shows that up to 40% of carbon in fine roots of temperate forest trees may be derived from neighbors, and stable carbon isotope labeling to individual tree canopies shows that carbon assimilated by 40-meter-tall spruce is traded over to neighboring beech, larch, and pine via overlapping root spheres.

Net transfer of carbon between ectomycorrhizal tree species in the field

Different plant species can be compatible with the same species of mycorrhizal fungi, and be connected to one another by a common mycelium,. Transfer of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus, through

Mycorrhizal ecology and evolution: the past, the present, and the future.

Large-scale molecular surveys have provided novel insights into the diversity, spatial and temporal dynamics of mycorrhizal fungal communities, and network theory makes it possible to analyze interactions between plant-fungal partners as complex underground multi-species networks.

Global diversity and geography of soil fungi

Diversity of most fungal groups peaked in tropical ecosystems, but ectomycorrhizal fungi and several fungal classes were most diverse in temperate or boreal ecosystems, and manyfungal groups exhibited distinct preferences for specific edaphic conditions (such as pH, calcium, or phosphorus).

Regulation of resource exchange in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

Five arguments are presented that challenge the importance of reciprocally regulated exchange, and thereby market dynamics, for resource exchange in the AM symbiosis, and suggest that such reciprocity is only found in a subset of symbionts, under specific conditions.

Carbon flow in the rhizosphere: carbon trading at the soil–root interface

Due to the importance of rhizodeposition in regulating ecosystem functioning, it is critical that future research focuses on resolving the quantitative importance of the different C and N fluxes operating in the rhizosphere and the ways in which these vary spatially and temporally.

Carbon limitation in trees

1 The ongoing enrichment of the atmosphere with CO2 raises the question of whether growth of forest trees, which represent close to 90% of the global biomass carbon, is still carbon limited at

Carbon Flux and Growth in Mature Deciduous Forest Trees Exposed to Elevated CO2

Free air CO2 release in combination with a canopy crane found an immediate and sustained enhancement of carbon flux through 35-meter-tall temperate forest trees when exposed to elevated CO2, but there was no overall stimulation in stem growth and leaf litter production after 4 years.

Estimation of the biomass and seasonal growth of external mycelium of ectomycorrhizal fungi in the field.

The biomass of EM mycelium in the soil was in the same range as the biomass of fine roots and peaks of mycelial growth coincided with periods of maximum growth of fine-roots.

Carbon transfer between plants and its control in networks of arbuscular mycorrhizas

A mycocentric view of the phenomenon of interplant C transfer is proposed, in which the fungal colonies within roots are seen as parts of an extended mycelium between which the fungus moves resources depending on the dynamics of its own growth.