Uncontrolled pearls, controlled evidence, meta-analysis and the individual patient.

@article{Ioannidis1998UncontrolledPC,
  title={Uncontrolled pearls, controlled evidence, meta-analysis and the individual patient.},
  author={John P. A. Ioannidis and Joseph Lau},
  journal={Journal of clinical epidemiology},
  year={1998},
  volume={51 8},
  pages={709-11}
}
Medicine has been dominated by uncontrolled data, often of unproven validity and insufficient to answer clinically important questions pertaining to individual patients. Controlled clinical trials, when designed and conducted rigorously, offer advantages over uncontrolled data, but they cannot be done for everything and often cater to the interests of sponsors rather than medical knowledge. With such sparse evidence, clinical research is doomed to look at main effects across populations rather… CONTINUE READING