Unconscious cerebral initiative and the role of conscious will in voluntary action

@article{Libet1985UnconsciousCI,
  title={Unconscious cerebral initiative and the role of conscious will in voluntary action},
  author={Benjamin Libet},
  journal={Behavioral and Brain Sciences},
  year={1985},
  volume={8},
  pages={529 - 539}
}
  • B. Libet
  • Published 1 December 1985
  • Psychology
  • Behavioral and Brain Sciences
Voluntary acts are preceded by electrophysiological "readiness potentials" (RPs). With spontaneous acts involving no preplanning, the main negative RP shift begins at about -550 ms. Such RP's were used to indicate the minimum onset times for the cerebral activity that precedes a fully endogenous voluntary act. The time of conscious intention to act was obtained from the subject's recall of the spatial clock position of a revolving spot at the time of his initial awareness of intending or… 
Awarenesses of wanting to move and of moving
  • B. Libet
  • Psychology
    Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • 1987
of the original article: Voluntary acts are preceded by electrophysiological "readiness potentials" (RPs). With spontaneous acts involving no preplanning, the main negative RP shift begins at about
What are W and M awarenesses of?
of the original article: Voluntary acts are preceded by electrophysiological "readiness potentials" (RPs). With spontaneous acts involving no preplanning, the main negative RP shift begins at about
Voluntary process and the readiness potential: Asking the right questions
  • D. Salter
  • Psychology
    Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • 1989
of the original article: Voluntary acts are preceded by electrophysiological "readiness potentials" (RPs). With spontaneous acts involving no preplanning, the main negative RP shift begins at about
The Timing of a Subjective Experience
Abstract of the original article: Voluntary acts are preceded by electrophysiological “ readiness potentials” (RPs). With spontaneous acts involving no preplanning, the main negative RP shift begins
Readiness potentials preceding spontaneous motor acts: voluntary vs. involuntary control.
Voluntary Action, Conscious Will, and Readiness Potential
Libet and colleagues, and later many others investigated brain activity during voluntary action. They found that electrophysiological "readiness potentials" (RPs) precede awareness of intention to
The neural time factor in conscious and unconscious events.
  • B. Libet
  • Psychology, Biology
    Ciba Foundation symposium
  • 1993
TLDR
The experimental finding that conscious intention to act appears only after a delay of about 350 ms from the onset of specific cerebral activity that precedes a voluntary act provided indirect evidence for the 'time-on' theory.
Benjamin Libet Can Conscious Experience Affect Brain Activity ?
TLDR
Velmans appropriately refers to the experimental study that found that onset of an electrically observable cerebral process (readiness potential) preceded the appearance of the subject’s awareness of the conscious wish to act, by at least 350 msec, indicating that the volitional process is initiated unconsciously.
Differences in Intersubject Early Readiness Potentials Between Voluntary and Instructed Actions
TLDR
It is suggested that early RP is absent among approximately half of subjects during instructed action and that the decreased proportion of negative potential shifts may account for the absence of early RP in the NOSHOW group.
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References

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TLDR
It is concluded that cerebral initiation of a spontaneous, freely voluntary act can begin unconsciously, that is, before there is any (at least recallable) subjective awareness that a 'decision' to act has already been initiated cerebrally.
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TLDR
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