Unconscious cerebral initiative and the role of conscious will in voluntary action

@article{Libet1985UnconsciousCI,
  title={Unconscious cerebral initiative and the role of conscious will in voluntary action},
  author={Benjamin Libet},
  journal={Behavioral and Brain Sciences},
  year={1985},
  volume={8},
  pages={529 - 539}
}
  • B. Libet
  • Published 1 December 1985
  • Psychology
  • Behavioral and Brain Sciences
Voluntary acts are preceded by electrophysiological "readiness potentials" (RPs). With spontaneous acts involving no preplanning, the main negative RP shift begins at about -550 ms. Such RP's were used to indicate the minimum onset times for the cerebral activity that precedes a fully endogenous voluntary act. The time of conscious intention to act was obtained from the subject's recall of the spatial clock position of a revolving spot at the time of his initial awareness of intending or… 

Awarenesses of wanting to move and of moving

  • B. Libet
  • Psychology
    Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • 1987
of the original article: Voluntary acts are preceded by electrophysiological "readiness potentials" (RPs). With spontaneous acts involving no preplanning, the main negative RP shift begins at about

What are W and M awarenesses of?

of the original article: Voluntary acts are preceded by electrophysiological "readiness potentials" (RPs). With spontaneous acts involving no preplanning, the main negative RP shift begins at about

Voluntary process and the readiness potential: Asking the right questions

  • D. Salter
  • Psychology
    Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • 1989
of the original article: Voluntary acts are preceded by electrophysiological "readiness potentials" (RPs). With spontaneous acts involving no preplanning, the main negative RP shift begins at about

Are the Mental Experiences of Will and Self-Control Significant for the Performance of a Voluntary Act?

Abstract of the original article: Voluntary acts are preceded by electrophysiological “ readiness potentials” (RPs). With spontaneous acts involving no preplanning, the main negative RP shift begins

The Timing of a Subjective Experience

Abstract of the original article: Voluntary acts are preceded by electrophysiological “ readiness potentials” (RPs). With spontaneous acts involving no preplanning, the main negative RP shift begins

Readiness potentials preceding spontaneous motor acts: voluntary vs. involuntary control.

Voluntary Action, Conscious Will, and Readiness Potential

Libet and colleagues, and later many others investigated brain activity during voluntary action. They found that electrophysiological "readiness potentials" (RPs) precede awareness of intention to

Benjamin Libet Can Conscious Experience Affect Brain Activity ?

Velmans appropriately refers to the experimental study that found that onset of an electrically observable cerebral process (readiness potential) preceded the appearance of the subject’s awareness of the conscious wish to act, by at least 350 msec, indicating that the volitional process is initiated unconsciously.

The timing of the conscious intention to move

The difference between the conventional result and the result suggests that the perception of intention rises through multiple levels of awareness, starting just after the brain initiates movement, which solves some problems of the conventional method.
...

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