# Unconditionally Secure Bit Commitment by Transmitting Measurement Outcomes

@article{Kent2012UnconditionallySB, title={Unconditionally Secure Bit Commitment by Transmitting Measurement Outcomes}, author={Adrian Kent}, journal={Physical review letters}, year={2012}, volume={109 13}, pages={ 130501 } }

We propose a new unconditionally secure bit commitment scheme based on Minkowski causality and the properties of quantum information. The receiving party sends a number of randomly chosen Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) qubits to the committer at a given point in space-time. The committer carries out measurements in one of the two BB84 bases, depending on the committed bit value, and transmits the outcomes securely at (or near) light speed in opposite directions to remote agents. These agents…

## Figures from this paper

## 94 Citations

Deterministic Relativistic Quantum Bit Commitment

- Computer ScienceArXiv
- 2015

New unconditionally secure bit commitment schemes whose security is based on Minkowski causality and the monogamy of quantum entanglement are described, and it is shown that these schemes still offer near-perfect security in the presence of losses and errors.

Can relativistic bit commitment lead to secure quantum oblivious transfer?

- Computer Science
- 2015

A detailed cheating strategy is provided, showing that the “honest-but-curious adversaries” in some of the existing no-go proofs on QOT still apply even if secure BC is used, enabling the receiver to increase the average reliability of the decoded value of the transferred bit.

Quantum Bit Commitment and the Reality of the Quantum State

- Computer Science
- 2018

It is argued that the protocol’s security entails the reality of the quantum state, provided retrocausality is excluded and the assumption that system E is quantum rather than classical is excluded.

Security bound of cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment

- Computer ScienceScientific reports
- 2015

The common features in all existing CSQBC protocols are analyzed, and it is shown that in anyCSQBC having these features, the receiver can always learn a non-trivial amount of information on the sender's committed bit before it is unveiled, while his cheating can pass the security check with a probability not less than 50%.

Quantum key distribution based on orthogonal states allows secure quantum bit commitment

- Computer Science
- 2011

A QBC protocol is built in which the density matrices of the quantum states encoding the commitment do not satisfy a crucial condition on which the no-go proofs of QBC are based, so that theNo- go proofs could be evaded.

Cryptanalysis and improvement of "Game theoretic security of quantum bit commitment"

- Computer Science, MathematicsInf. Sci.
- 2021

A Private Quantum Bit String Commitment

- Computer Science, MathematicsEntropy
- 2020

An entanglement-based quantum bit string commitment protocol whose composability is proven in the random oracle model and has the additional property of preserving the privacy of the committed message.

Unconditionally secure multi-party quantum commitment scheme

- Computer ScienceQuantum Inf. Process.
- 2018

A new unconditionally secure multi-party quantum commitment is proposed in this paper by encoding the committed message to the phase of a quantum state by using the interference of phase-encoded coherent states of light.

A novel single agent quantum bit commitment scheme

- Computer Science2017 International Conference on Computing, Networking and Communications (ICNC)
- 2017

In this protocol, a quantum bit commitment protocol is proposed that can be regarded as the primitive of authentication protocol in QKD networks, and which has less requirement for additional hardware and lower complexity in implementation.

Practical quantum oblivious transfer with a single photon

- Computer Science, PhysicsLaser Physics
- 2019

This paper proposes a practical QOT protocol, which is perfectly secure against dishonest sender without relying on any technological assumption, andAlso, this protocol has an unbeatable efficiency since it requires the transmission of a single photon only.

## References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 24 REFERENCES

Unconditionally Secure Bit Commitment with Flying Qudits

- Computer Science, MathematicsArXiv
- 2011

A new development in physics-based cryptography is reported which gives a completely new way of implementing bit commitment that is perfectly secure, and relies on the no-cloning theorem of quantum theory and theNosuperluminal-signalling principle of special relativity.

Secure Classical Bit Commitment Using Fixed Capacity Communication Channels

- Computer Science, MathematicsJournal of Cryptology
- 2005

It is proved that RBC2 allows a bit commitment to be indefinitely maintained with unconditional security against all classical attacks, and is immune from the class of attacks shown by Mayers and Lo-Chau to render non-relativistic quantum bit commitment protocols insecure.

Unconditionally Secure Bit Commitment

- Computer Science, Mathematics
- 1999

A new classical bit commitment protocol based on cryptographic constraints imposed by special relativity that evades the no-go results of Mayers, Lo and Chau by requiring from Alice a sequence of communications, including a post-revelation verification, each of which is guaranteed to be independent of its predecessor.

Quantum cryptography: Public key distribution and coin tossing

- Computer ScienceTheor. Comput. Sci.
- 2014

Quantum Tagging: Authenticating Location via Quantum Information and Relativistic Signalling Constraints

- Computer ScienceArXiv
- 2010

The pitfalls of naive quantum cryptographic reasoning in this context are illustrated by describing several protocols which at first sight appear unconditionally secure but which, as it is shown, can in fact be broken by teleportation-based attacks.

Unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment is impossible

- Computer Science, Mathematics
- 1997

It is shown that the claim that quantum cryptography can provide protocols that are unconditionally secure, that is, for which the security does not depend on any restriction on the time, space, or technology available to the cheaters, does not hold for any quantum bit commitment protocol.

Impossibility of unconditionally secure commitment of a certified classical bit

- Computer Science, Mathematics
- 2000

It is shown that no unconditionally secure BCCC protocol based on special relativity and quantum theory exists and a quantum cryptographic primitive, bit commitment with a certificate of classicality (BCCC), which differs from standard bit commitment in that it guarantees that the committed state has a fixed classical value.

Reexamination of quantum bit commitment: The possible and the impossible

- Computer Science, Mathematics
- 2007

It is shown that any concealing protocol allows the sender to find a cheating strategy, which is universal in the sense that it works against any strategy of the receiver, and provides a natural characterization of protocols that fall outside the standard setting of unlimitedmore » available technology and thus may allow secure bit commitment.

Variable Bias Coin Tossing

- Computer Science, MathematicsArXiv
- 2005

Some cryptographic VBCT protocols are described whose security is guaranteed by quantum theory and the impossibility of superluminal signaling, setting their results in the context of a general discussion of secure two-party computation.