In order to evaluate the role of the hyperparathyroid state for blood pressure and volume homeostasis, eight patients with primary hyperparathyroidism were studied before and after corrective surgery. Neither noradrenaline induced blood pressure changes nor basal blood pressure were affected by the operation, and the values were the same as in an age- and sex-matched control group. Noradrenaline infusion induced an increase in PTH(1-84) values before (72-86 ng l-1, medians, p < 0.02), in contrast to a decrease after (28 to 19 ng l-1, p < 0.05) operation for primary hyperparathyroidism. Basal plasma atrial natriuretic peptide was lower before than after removal of adenomata (3.2 vs. 4.8 pmol l-1, medians, p < 0.02). Cyclic 3'-5'-guanosine monophosphate was not significantly changed (4.7 vs. 5.5 nmol l-1). Aldosterone was higher before than after surgery (139 vs. 71 pmol l-1, p < 0.02), whereas angiotensin II was unaltered (20 vs. 9 pmol l-1). Arginine vasopressin was higher before than after the operation (0.9 vs. 0.7 pmol l-1, p < 0.05), but urinary excretion of prostaglandin E2 was unchanged. In conclusion primary hyperparathyroidism was not associated with changes in noradrenaline reactivity or basal blood pressure despite derangements of hormones adjusting sodium and water homeostasis. It is suggested that the hormonal changes may be secondary to a relative volume depletion.