Ultraviolet colour perception in European starlings and Japanese quail.

@article{Smith2002UltravioletCP,
  title={Ultraviolet colour perception in European starlings and Japanese quail.},
  author={Emma L. Smith and Verity J Greenwood and Andrew T. D. Bennett},
  journal={The Journal of experimental biology},
  year={2002},
  volume={205 Pt 21},
  pages={
          3299-306
        }
}
Whereas humans have three types of cone photoreceptor, birds have four types of single cones and, unlike humans, are sensitive to ultraviolet light (UV, 320-400 nm). Most birds are thought to have either a violet-sensitive single cone that has some sensitivity to UV wavelengths (for example, many non-passerine species) or a single cone that has maximum sensitivity to UV (for example, oscine passerine species). UV sensitivity is possible because, unlike humans, avian ocular media do not absorb… 

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