Ultrastructure of cephalopod chromatophore organs

  title={Ultrastructure of cephalopod chromatophore organs},
  author={Richard A. Cloney and Ernst Florey},
  journal={Zeitschrift f{\"u}r Zellforschung und Mikroskopische Anatomie},
SummaryThe chromatophore organs of Loligo opalescens are composed of five different types of cells: the chromatophore proper; radial muscle fibers; neuronal processes (axons); glial cells; and chromatophoral sheath cells.The surface of a retracted chromatophore is extensively folded, but upon contraction of the radial muscle fibers it becomes flattened and the folds of the surface disappear. The cell membrane cannot be responsible for the elasticity of the chromatophore as claimed by earlier… 

Multiple Innervation der Chromatophorenmuskelzellen von Loligo vulgaris

  • W. Weber
  • Physics, Biology
    Zeitschrift für Zellforschung und Mikroskopische Anatomie
  • 2004
By means of silver impregnation a multiple innervation of the chromatophores has been shown, establishing a close connection between the sarcoplasm and the central core of the muscle, cell.

Skin color in the squids Loligo pealii and Loligo opalescens

  • S. Mirow
  • Biology
    Zeitschrift für Zellforschung und Mikroskopische Anatomie
  • 2004
The morphology and ultrastructure of the chromatophores was studied in the squids Loligo pealii Lesueur and Loligo opalescens Berry to explore their role in rapid, physiological color changes seen in the skin of cephalopods.

The ultrastructure and innervation of muscles controlling chromatophore expansion in the squid, Loligo vulgaris

There is a possibility that more than one neurotransmitter is present in the nerves innervating chromatophores, as Electron-lucent and dense-cored vesicles are present in all synaptic regions, but electron-dense vesicle are only found towards the distal end of the fibre.

Innervation of chromatophore muscle fibres in the octopus Eledone cirrhosa

  • F. Dubas
  • Biology
    Cell and Tissue Research
  • 2004
Nerves terminating on chromatophore muscles are very rare, neuromuscular contact seems to be made “en passant” and Varicosities of the axons apposed to the muscles are thought to be presynaptic sites.

Cephalopod integument: The ultrastructure of Kölliker's organs and their relationship to setae

It is inferred that the tuft elongates by basal appositional growth and that glycoprotein secreted by the follicle cells is organized into filaments by the apical plasmalemma of the chaetoblast.

Ultrastructure and differentiation of ascidian muscle

The larval muscle cells of Diplosoma macdonaldi contain subcortical and medullary myofibrils which are invested by fenestrated sheets of the sarcoplasmic reticulum which are coupled with tubular invaginations of the sarcolemma.

Chromatophore radial muscle fibers anchor in flexible squid skin

This work investigated the anchoring mechanism of radial muscle fibers that expand pigment cells in the longfin squid, Doryteuthis (Loligo) pealeii, and postulate that these features may be relevant for the development of soft actuation models in materials science.

Ultrastructure of the coelomic lining in the podium of the starfish Stylasterias forreri

It is concluded that the coelomic lining in the podium of S. forreri is a bipartite epithelium and that the retractor cells of the podium are myoepithelial in nature.

Zur Ultrastruktur der Chromatophorenmuskelzellen von Loligo vulgaris

  • W. Weber
  • Biology
    Zeitschrift für Zellforschung und Mikroskopische Anatomie
  • 2004
The innervation of the brown, red and yellow chromatophore muscle cells in Loligo vulgaris shows quantitative and qualitative differences and occasionally axons with dense core vesicles of about 600 Å diameter.



Nervous control and spontaneous activity of the chromatophores of a cephalopod, Loligo opalescens.

  • E. Florey
  • Biology
    Comparative biochemistry and physiology
  • 1966


The skin of late embryonic, larval, and young postmetamorphic newts, Taricha torosa, has been examined with particular reference to areas of cellular attachment, appearing consistent with the concept that a wide range of adhesive specializations exists in nature, and that the more highly organized of these serve as strong, highly supported attachment sites, supplemental in function to a more generalized aggregating mechanism.

The ultrastructure of the motor nerve endings in the muscles of cephalopods.

The basement lamelia of amphibian skin; its reconstruction after wounding.

  • W. FerrisP. Weiss
  • Environmental Science
    The Journal of biophysical and biochemical cytology
  • 1956
The basement lamella under the epidermis of amphibian larvae shows a sub-microscopic architecture of remarkable geometric regularity, and the repair of this membrane after wounding was studied electronmicroscopically in ultrathin sections.

Intercellular Attachment in the Epithelium of Hydra As Revealed by Electron Microscopy

  • R. L. Wood
  • Biology
    The Journal of biophysical and biochemical cytology
  • 1959
It is suggested that septate desmosomes in Hydra form barriers to the movement of water into intercellular spaces and thus help to protect the organism's internal environment.


After glutaraldehyde is used as a fixative in this present study, the general preservation of cortical fine structure is greatly improved, shown by the first evidence of slender tubules, 230 to 270 A in diameter and of indeterminate length, in plant cells of this type.


The tight junction is impervious to concentrated protein solutions and appears to function as a diffusion barrier or "seal," and the desmosome and probably also the zonula adhaerens may represent intercellular attachment devices.

Evidence for four classes of microtubules in individual cells.

It was concluded that micro Tubules are proteinaceous, at least in part, and that microtubules are different in composition from membranes.

Mechanisms of Contraction in Molluscan Muscle

Structural and physiological experiments suggest that the basic contractile mechanism is the same in all molluscan muscles, but the muscle-relaxing mechanism may be specialized, particularly in certain smooth muscles which have the very slow relaxation characteristic of “catch” muscles.