In order to study structural bases of central mechanisms of thermoregulation, a comparative electron microscopic analysis of various cellular groups in one of thermosensitive zones of the cat hypothalamic area--the medial preoptic area--have been carried out under conditions of experimental fever. The latter is produced by injection of pyrogen of bacterial origin--pyrogenal--to the animals. Pyrogenal, increasing the body temperature, produces a stimulatory effect on various cellular elements, first of all on leucocytes, monocytes and macrophages in the medial preoptic area, as well as on endotheliocytes of the terminal vessels. Under pyrogenal effect activation of microglial cells and pericytes also takes place, and as a result of the rearrangements, occurring in the structure, they change into macrophages. This is an evidence of their active participation in the immune protection of the brain. According to the data from other investigations, all these activated cells produce peptide interleukin-1, one of the mediators of fever and stimulator of the immune system. Pyrogenal is stated to produce a stimulating effect on the astroglia and on some neurons of the medial preoptic area, that respond with cytoplasm increase and accumulation of numerous organelles. The reactive changes at fever in some neurons of the medial preoptic area can demonstrate that they belong to the thermosensitive pool. A conclusion is made, concerning a complex effect of pyrogenal, that results in a cooperative response of a number of cellular systems of the organism.