Cells with uniform, small-round nucleus and clear cytoplasm (oligodendroglial-like cell, OLC) are commonly observed in central nervous system (CNS) neoplasm of glial and neuronal lineage, such as oligodendroglioma, clear-cell ependymoma, and central neurocytoma. Immunohistochemistry does not always contribute to the characterization of OLC because of (1) loss of antigen expression; (2) lack of specific markers for oligodendrogliomas; and (3) occasional coexpression of neuronal and glial antigens. An ultrastructural analysis associated with an immunohistochemical study of 20 cases of CNS tumors largely constituted by OLCs has been performed. Neurocytomas (12 cases), medullocytomas (2 cases), cerebral neuroblastoma (1 case), and ganglioglioma (1 case) showed OLCs with ultrastructural features of neuronal differentiation (neuritic processes, dense-core granules, synaptic structures). Oligodendroglioma (3 cases) OLCs were characterized by mitochondrial-rich cytoplasm, and ependymoma (1 case) OLCs showed microrosettes and scattered cilia. The electron microscopic analysis can provide a more precise diagnosis of these OLC-containing tumors despite their uniform morphological appearance.