Spatial and Temporal Control of Cavitation Allows High In Vitro Transfection Efficiency in the Absence of Transfection Reagents or Contrast Agents
Ultrasound (US)-mediated gene transfection in the presence of microbubbles is a recently developed and promising non-viral gene delivery method. Optimising the parameters used in ultrasonic transfection is urgently required in order to realise higher transfection efficiencies in clinical settings. This study examined the effect of ultrasound exposure parameters on plasmid DNA transfection in mouse embryonic fibroblast cell lines using perfluorobutane bubbles. Variations in US intensity (0-11 W/cm2), pulse repetition frequency (PRF, 50-50,000 Hz), duty ratio (10 to 50%), exposure time (0-120 s) and microbubble volume concentration (0 to 10%) were tested, and the microbubble volume concentration was also monitored during exposure. Through the experiments, the mechanism of how variations in parameters influence US-mediated gene transfection was discussed, which can provide a basis for future applications of ultrasound mediated transfection.