Ultrasound-guided digital sympathectomy using botulinum toxin.


Treatment of patients with Raynaud’s disease who have chronic pain and ulceration is difficult. If conservative medical management fails, digital sympathectomy by injection of botulinum toxin around involved neurovascular bundles can improve perfusion and reduce pain [1]. To limit complications and side-effects, sympathectomy should be performed as distally… (More)
DOI: 10.1111/anae.12416

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