PURPOSE To describe quantitative and qualitative features of eyes with advanced bullous keratopathy assessed using ultrasound biomicroscopy, before and after anterior stromal puncture (ASP) or amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) procedures to relieve chronic pain. METHODS The present descriptive comparative study included 40 eyes of 40 patients with chronic intermittent pain due to bullous keratopathy who were randomly assigned to one of the two treatments (AMT or ASP). Ultrasound biomicroscopy (Humphrey, UBM 840, 50 MHz transducer, immersion technique) was used, and a questionnaire about pain intensity was completed preoperatively and postoperatively at days 90 and 180, respectively. Exclusion criteria were age<18 years, presence of concurrent infection, ocular hypertension, and absence of pain. RESULTS In a 180-day follow-up, the AMT group exhibited mean central corneal thickness (CCT), 899.4 µm preoperatively and 1122.5 µm postoperatively (p<0.001); mean epithelial thickness (ET), 156.4 µm preoperatively and 247.8 µm postoperatively (p<0.001); and mean stromal thickness (ST), 742.9 µm preoperatively and 826.3 µm postoperatively (p=0.005). The ASP group exhibited mean CCT, 756.7 µm preoperatively and 914.8 µm postoperatively (p<0.001); mean ET, 102.1 µm preoperatively and 245.2 µm postoperatively (p<0.001); and mean ST, 654.6 µm preoperatively and 681.5 µm postoperatively (p<0.999). Correlations between CCT and pain intensity in the AMT group (p=0.209 pre- and postoperatively) and the ASP group (p=0.157 preoperatively and p=0.426 at the 180-day follow-up) were not statistically significant. Epithelial and stromal edema, Descemet's membrane folds, epithelial bullae, and the presence of interface fluid were frequently observed qualitative features. CONCLUSION CCT increased over time in both groups. The magnitude of CCT did not correlate with pain intensity in the sample studied. The presence of interface fluid was a qualitative feature specifically found in some patients who underwent AMT.