[Ultrasound anatomy of the shoulder joint during the growth period].


AIM OF STUDY It is the aim of this investigation to describe the normal ultrasonographical appearance of the glenohumeral joint in childhood. METHODS Ultrasound investigation was performed in 20 healthy children aged between 6 weeks and 19 years (median: 6 years) using 12 MHz linear probes. A dynamic examination of both shoulders was carried out. Probe positions according to standard planes were used, and attention was paid to visualise the growth regions. RESULTS Ultrasound images of the periarticular soft tissue in children do not differ markedly from those in adults. However, there are basic structural differences of the epiphyseal and apophyseal regions. In the newborn period the proximal humeral epiphysis mainly consists of cartilage and changes to the adult shape after the appearance of three secondary ossification centers and growth plates. Interestingly, the chondral buds of the acromion or coracoid process offer additional imaging facilities for ultrasound examination in children. CONCLUSIONS Ultrasound examination of the glenohumeral joint in children offers a more precise evaluation when compared to adults, due to the presence of additional ultrasonographical "windows" and depiction of parts of the humeral epiphysis. This imaging technique is well tolerated by children.

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@article{Grechenig2001UltrasoundAO, title={[Ultrasound anatomy of the shoulder joint during the growth period].}, author={Wolfgang Grechenig and Johannes Mayr and Gerolf Peicha and F. J. Seibert}, journal={Der Radiologe}, year={2001}, volume={41 9}, pages={786-92} }