OBJECTIVES To evaluate the efficacy of ultrasonography and colour and power Doppler ultrasonography for diagnosis of intraosseous lesions of the jaws and to correlate the contents of the lesion with the histological findings. METHODS This study included 20 patients referred to the oral surgery clinic for treatment. All patients had intraosseous jaw lesions in the maxilla or mandible. Ultrasonographic examinations were performed and, according to the ultrasonography findings, the jaw lesions were classified into three groups: cystic, semisolid and solid. Additionally, colour and power Doppler ultrasonography examinations were performed to evaluate blood flow in all patients. After the ultrasonography examination, the patients underwent surgical treatment. The correlation between ultrasonography and Doppler ultrasonography findings of the lesions and histological findings was investigated. RESULTS 22 lesions were identified in 20 patients. Of the five lesions with histological findings of inflammatory granulation tissue, ultrasonography identified four of them that showed a solid appearance. Vascularization was detected in both internal and external areas of these lesions with colour and power Doppler ultrasonography. Of the 17 odontogenic cystic lesions, the ultrasonography examination showed a simple cystic appearance in 5 lesions, a complex cystic appearance in 3 lesions, a semisolid appearance in 6 lesions and a solid appearance in 1 lesion. Two lesions were inconclusive on ultrasonographic examination. CONCLUSIONS Ultrasonography can provide accurate information on the content of intraosseous lesions of the jaws before any surgical procedure. Additionally, Doppler ultrasound can show vascularization of the lesion. However, there was no correlation between the ultrasound findings and the definitive histological diagnosis.