Ultrasonic vocalizations as indices of affective states in rats.

@article{Knutson2002UltrasonicVA,
  title={Ultrasonic vocalizations as indices of affective states in rats.},
  author={Brian Knutson and J. Burgdorf and J. Panksepp},
  journal={Psychological bulletin},
  year={2002},
  volume={128 6},
  pages={
          961-77
        }
}
Adult rats spontaneously vocalize in ultrasonic frequencies. Although these ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) have been described as by-products of locomotor activity or social signals, accumulating evidence suggests that they may also index anticipatory affective states. Converging ethological, pharmacological, and brain stimulation research indicates that whereas long low-frequency (> 0.3-s, approximately 22-kHz) USVs occur during anticipation of punishment or avoidance behavior, short, high… Expand
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The hypothesis that short (<0.5 s), high-frequency ultrasonic vocalizations ("50-kHz USVs") mark a positive affective state in rats and introduce a novel and rapid marker of pharmacological reward is supported. Expand
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