Ultrahigh Strength and High Electrical Conductivity in Copper

@article{Lu2004UltrahighSA,
  title={Ultrahigh Strength and High Electrical Conductivity in Copper},
  author={Lei Lu and Yongfeng Shen and Xianhua Chen and Lihua Qian and Kun Lu},
  journal={Science},
  year={2004},
  volume={304},
  pages={422 - 426}
}
Methods used to strengthen metals generally also cause a pronounced decrease in electrical conductivity, so that a tradeoff must be made between conductivity and mechanical strength. We synthesized pure copper samples with a high density of nanoscale growth twins. They showed a tensile strength about 10 times higher than that of conventional coarse-grained copper, while retaining an electrical conductivity comparable to that of pure copper. The ultrahigh strength originates from the effective… 
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