Ultrabithorax is required for membranous wing identity in the beetle Tribolium castaneum

@article{Tomoyasu2005UltrabithoraxIR,
  title={Ultrabithorax is required for membranous wing identity in the beetle Tribolium castaneum},
  author={Yoshinori Tomoyasu and Scott R. Wheeler and Robin E. Denell},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2005},
  volume={433},
  pages={643-647}
}
The two pairs of wings that are characteristic of ancestral pterygotes (winged insects) have often undergone evolutionary modification. In the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, differences between the membranous forewings and the modified hindwings (halteres) depend on the Hox gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx). The Drosophila forewings develop without Hox input, while Ubx represses genes that are important for wing development, promoting haltere identity. However, the idea that Hox input is important… 

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  • J. Deutsch
  • Biology
    BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology
  • 2005
The function of thoracic Hox genes in the beetle Tribolium castaneum is examined using classical genetics, transgenesis and RNAi to find out what happens to the homeotic transformation of the second pair of dorsal appendages, the wings, into elytra.

Early Development and Diversity of Gryllus Appendages

Cricket hind leg can serve as an exceptional model for combined studies of both tissue growth and segmental patterning during embryonic leg development and formulates a general framework that can be used for future studies on the development and diversification of insect appendages.

Tergal and pleural wing‐related tissues in the German cockroach and their implication to the evolutionary origin of insect wings

It is demonstrated that B. germanica possesses two distinct tissues in their wingless segments, one with tergal and one with pleural nature, that might be evolutionarily related to wings, indicating a more complex evolutionary history of the tissues that contributed to the emergence of insect wings.
...

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