# Ultra-large scale integration

@article{Meindl1984UltralargeSI, title={Ultra-large scale integration}, author={James D. Meindl}, journal={IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices}, year={1984}, volume={31}, pages={1555-1561} }

Ultra-large scale integration is governed by a hierarchical matrix of limits. The levels of this hierarchy can be codified as 1) fundamental, 2) material, 3) device, 4) circuit, and 5) system. Each level includes both theoretical and practical as well as analogical limits. Theoretically, thermal fluctuations impose a fundamental limit of several kT on switching energy. Scattering limited velocity and critical electric field establish a material limit on switching speed. Avoidance of… Expand

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