Ubiquity of Biological Ice Nucleators in Snowfall

  title={Ubiquity of Biological Ice Nucleators in Snowfall},
  author={Brent C Christner and Cindy E. Morris and Christine M. Foreman and Rongman Cai and David C. Sands},
  pages={1214 - 1214}
Despite the integral role of ice nucleators (IN) in atmospheric processes leading to precipitation, their sources and distributions have not been well established. We examined IN in snowfall from mid- and high-latitude locations and found that the most active were biological in origin. Of the IN larger than 0.2 micrometer that were active at temperatures warmer than -7�C, 69 to 100% were biological, and a substantial fraction were bacteria. Our results indicate that the biosphere is a source of… 

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