author={Folmer Bokma and Valentijn van den Brink and Tanja Stadler},
Recent studies indicate that Neanderthal and Denisova hominins may have been separate species, while debate continues on the status of Homo floresiensis. The decade‐long debate between “splitters,” who recognize over 20 hominin species, and “lumpers,” who maintain that all these fossils belong to just a few lineages, illustrates that we do not know how many extinct hominin species to expect. Here, we present probability distributions for the number of speciation events and the number of… 
Testing for Depéret's Rule (Body Size Increase) in Mammals using Combined Extinct and Extant Data
A method to combine information from present-day species with fossil data in a Bayesian phylogenetic framework is presented, and it is shown that complementary data from extant and extinct species can greatly improve inference of macroevolutionary processes.
Evidence of Interbreeding between Homo sapiens and Neanderthals in Melanesia
Findings support that there has been interbreeding between the two hominins; however, more evidence is needed of where interbreeding occurred based on migration patterns.
Quantifying the effects of anagenetic and cladogenetic evolution.
The skull from Florisbad: a paleoneurological report.
  • E. Bruner, M. Lombard
  • Environmental Science
    Journal of anthropological sciences = Rivista di antropologia : JASS
  • 2020
The endocranial anatomy of the Florisbad skull displays a mosaic of derived and plesiomorphic features, which makes this fossil compatible with distinct phylogenetic scenarios, but none of these traits are, however, strictly diagnostic in terms of taxonomy.
Does Gene Tree Discordance Explain the Mismatch between Macroevolutionary Models and Empirical Patterns of Tree Shape and Branching Times?
This simulation study highlights the necessity of revisiting the assumptions made in phylogenetic analyses, as these assumptions, such as equating the gene tree with the species tree, might lead to a biased conclusion.
Brains, innovations, tools and cultural transmission in birds, non-human primates, and fossil hominins
The colonization of new areas may have accompanied increases in both brain size and innovativeness in hominins as they have in other mammals and in birds, potentially accelerating hominin evolution via behavioral drive.
Nucleotide substitutions during speciation may explain substitution rate variation
It is proposed that variation in accumulated mutations may be partly explained by an elevated mutation rate during speciation, and how shifting mutations from branches to speciation events impacts inference of branching times in phylogenetic reconstruction is shown.
The Species Concept as a Cognitive Tool for Biological Anthropology
  • E. Bruner
  • Biology
    American journal of primatology
  • 2013
A compromise (and recommended) choice would be to rely on shared and reasonable interpretations of homogeneous evolutionary units, without diving into fine‐grained issues that will remain, however, unresolved.


On the Number of Ancestral Human Species
The fossil record is shown to likely dramatically under sample species diversity for the hominin clade while at the same time substantially underestimating species longevity, suggesting the human clade may be characterised by a large number of rapidly evolving and relatively short-lived species.
Speciation and extinction in the fossil record of North American mammals
Paleontological research has focused far more strongly on taxonomic diversity than on speciation in recent years, and turnover rates have focused on two overriding issues: whether they can be explained using intrinsic dynamic mechanisms, such as either density dependence or constraints on morphology.
A new small-bodied hominin from the Late Pleistocene of Flores, Indonesia
The discovery of an adult hominin with stature and endocranial volume equal to the smallest-known australopithecines is reported, from the Late Pleistocene of Flores, Indonesia, and shows that the genus Homo is morphologically more varied and flexible in its adaptive responses than previously thought.
The Single Species Hypothesis: Truly Dead and Pushing Up Bushes, or Still Twitching and Ripe for Resuscitation?
Frank Livingstone proclaims himself to be the last living proponent of the single species hypothesis. In sharp contrast, a species-rich, bushy phylogeny is favored by most human paleontologists. Is
A new hominid from the Upper Miocene of Chad, Central Africa
The discovery of six hominid specimens from Chad, central Africa, 2,500 km from the East African Rift Valley, suggest that the earliest members of the hominids clade were more widely distributed than has been thought, and that the divergence between the human and chimpanzee lineages was earlier than indicated by most molecular studies.
The complete mitochondrial DNA genome of an unknown hominin from southern Siberia
A complete mitochondrial DNA sequence retrieved from a bone excavated in 2008 in Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains in southern Siberia represents a hitherto unknown type of hominin mtDNA that shares a common ancestor with anatomically modern human and Neanderthal mtDNAs about 1.0 million years ago.
Number of ancestral human species: a molecular perspective.
  • D. Curnoe, A. Thorne
  • Biology
    Homo : internationale Zeitschrift fur die vergleichende Forschung am Menschen
  • 2003
The mitochondrial "African Eve" hypothesis based on a far more recent origin for H. sapiens is called into question, and the limits for intraspecific morphological variation used by many palaeoanthropologists have been set too low.
New hominin genus from eastern Africa shows diverse middle Pliocene lineages
New fossils discovered west of Lake Turkana, Kenya, which differ markedly from those of contemporary A. afarensis point to an early diet-driven adaptive radiation, provide new insight on the association of hominin craniodental features, and have implications for the understanding of Plio–Pleistocene hom inin phylogeny.
Genetic history of an archaic hominin group from Denisova Cave in Siberia
A tooth found in Denisova Cave carries a mitochondrial genome highly similar to that of the finger bone, further indicating that Denisovans have an evolutionary history distinct from Neanderthals and modern humans.
Genetic evidence for complex speciation of humans and chimpanzees
This analysis shows that human–chimpanzee speciation occurred less than 6.3 million years ago and probably more recently, conflicting with some interpretations of ancient fossils and most strikingly, chromosome X shows an extremely young genetic divergence time, close to the genome minimum along nearly its entire length.