author={Serge A. Krasnokutski and Martin Kuhn and Michael Renzler and Cornelia J{\"a}ger and Th. Henning and Paul Scheier},
  journal={The Astrophysical Journal Letters},
The reactions of carbon atoms with dihydrogen have been investigated in liquid helium droplets at T = 0.37 K. A calorimetric technique was applied to monitor the energy released in the reaction. The barrierless reaction between a single carbon atom and a single dihydrogen molecule was detected. Reactions between dihydrogen clusters and carbon atoms have been studied by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The formation of hydrocarbon cations of the type C m H n + ?> with m = 1–4 and n = 1–15 was… 

Condensation of Atomic Carbon: Possible Routes toward Glycine

Many organic molecules including amino acids and nucleobases are expected to be formed in astrophysical environments. In this article, we used both experimental and computational approaches to test

Low-temperature Condensation of Carbon

Two different types of experiments were performed. In the first experiment, we studied the low-temperature condensation of vaporized graphite inside bulk liquid helium, while in the second

Experimental characterization of the energetics of low-temperature surface reactions

Astrochemical reactions on the surfaces of dust grains, for instance, are thought to be responsible for the formation of complex organic molecules, which are of potential importance for the origin of

A cryogenic ice setup to simulate carbon atom reactions in interstellar ices.

The design, implementation, and performance of a customized carbon atom beam source for the purpose of investigating solid-state reaction routes in interstellar ices in molecular clouds are discussed, which includes the flux of the carbon atoms hitting the ice sample, their temperature, and the potential impact of temperature on ice reactions.

Gas-grain model of carbon fractionation in dense molecular clouds

Carbon containing molecules in cold molecular clouds show various levels of isotopic fractionation through multiple observations. To understand such effects, we have developed a new gas-grain

Chemistry and physics of dopants embedded in helium droplets.

Development of experimental techniques and methods and recent results they enabled to grow complexes and clusters at conditions that are perfect to simulate cold and dense regions of the interstellar medium are summarized.

Cold physics and chemistry: Collisions, ionization and reactions inside helium nanodroplets close to zero K

Sensitivity of gas-grain chemical models to surface reaction barriers

Context. The feasibility of contemporary gas-grain astrochemical models depends on the availability of accurate kinetics data, in particular, for surface processes. Aims. We study the sensitivity of

Tracing the Primordial Chemical Life of Glycine: A Review from Quantum Chemical Simulations

Glycine (Gly), NH2CH2COOH, is the simplest amino acid. Although it has not been directly detected in the interstellar gas-phase medium, it has been identified in comets and meteorites, and its

Quantum-classical approach to the reaction dynamics in a superfluid helium nanodroplet. The Ne2 dimer and Ne-Ne adduct formation reaction Ne + Ne-doped nanodroplet.

The formation of the neon-neon adduct, Ne-Ne@(4He)N', clearly dominates the reactivity of the system, which results in the formation of a "quantum gel"/"quantum foam", because the two Ne atoms essentially maintain their identity inside the nanodroplet.



Oxidative reactions of silicon atoms and clusters at ultralow temperature in helium droplets.

The observation of SiO(2) products with the mass spectrometer reveals that the He droplet can stabilize intermediate products in the exit channel, and large He droplets (N(He) > 20000) are capable of keeping part of the reaction products in their interior.

Ultra-low-temperature reactions of Mg atoms with O2 molecules in helium droplets.

The reaction of magnesium atoms and clusters with oxygen molecules has been investigated in liquid helium droplets and it was found that the chemical reaction is unexpectedly fast and has a first-order reaction rate larger than 5 x 10(4) s(-1).

Low-temperature chemistry in helium droplets: reactions of aluminum atoms with O2 and H2O.

It was found that at high doping concentrations, the incorporated Al atoms do not aggregate to form clusters inside of the He droplets, and single Al atoms react with single O(2) molecules.

Anomalies in the reactions of helium(1+) with sulfur hexafluoride embedded in large helium-4 clusters

The embedding of single SF 6 molecules in large liquid 4 He clusters (N≃3×10 3 atoms) and their ion molecule reactions with He + within the clusters are studied in a molecular beam apparatus equipped

Reactions of atomic carbon C(23PJ) by kinetic absorption spectroscopy in the vacuum ultra-violet

Time-resolved attenuation of the atomic emission transition C(33P°J→23PJ) at 166 nm has been used to study the reactions of C(23PJ). The decay of this atom, following its generation by the vacuum

Kinetic investigation of ground state carbon atoms, C(23PJ)

A kinetic study of C(23PJ), generated by the repetitive pulsed irradiation of carbon suboxide in the Schumann region, is presented. The ground state carbon atoms were monitored photoelectrically by

Ion-molecule reactions in helium nanodroplets doped with C60 and water clusters.

The existence of doubly charged intermediates in doped helium droplets and their role in subsequent ion–molecule reactions has so far been ignored; these intermediates provide a compelling rationale for previous observations of hydrogen loss from clusters of organic molecules and biomolecules.

A shock tube study of reactions of carbon atoms with hydrogen and oxygen using excimer photolysis of C3O2 and carbon atom atomic resonance absorption spectroscopy

The reactions of C({sup 3}P) with H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} were studied at high temperature in reflected shock wave experiments. C atoms were detected at 156.1 nm by atomic resonance absorption

CH and C‐atom time histories in dilute hydrocarbon pyrolysis: Measurements and kinetics calculations

CH and C-atom concentration-time histories were measured during pyrolysis of highly dilute mixtures (6 to 100 ppm) of ethane or methane in argon behind reflected shock waves over the temperature

Formation of even-numbered hydrogen cluster cations in ultracold helium droplets.

Apart from the previously observed magic number n=6, pronounced drops in the abundance of even-numbered cluster ions are seen at n=30 and 114, which suggest icosahedral shell closures at H(6)(+)(H(2))(12) and H( 6)(+).