Tyrosine Hydroxylase, Tryptophan Hydroxylase, Biopterin, and Neopterin in the Brains of Normal Controls and Patients with Senile Dementia of Alzheimer Type

@article{Sawada1987TyrosineHT,
  title={Tyrosine Hydroxylase, Tryptophan Hydroxylase, Biopterin, and Neopterin in the Brains of Normal Controls and Patients with Senile Dementia of Alzheimer Type},
  author={Makoto Sawada and Yoko Hirata and Heii Arai and Reiji Iizuka and Toshiharu Nagatsu},
  journal={Journal of Neurochemistry},
  year={1987},
  volume={48}
}
Abstract: The activities of tyrosine hydroxylase and tryptophan hydroxylase, and the concentrations of the biopterin cofactor and the precursor neopterin were measured in 14 regions of postmortem brains from four histologically verified patients of senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT) and eight histologically normal controls. Neopterin concentrations were measured in the human brain for the first time. The activities of tyrosine hydroxylase and tryptophan hydroxylase in the brains of… 
Tyrosine hydroxylase, tryptophan hydroxylase, biopterin and neopterin in the brains and biopterin and neopterin in sera from patients with Alzheimer’s disease
TLDR
The results suggest that the reductions in TH, TPH, and BP may be related to the reduction in monoamine neurotransmitters, due to destruction of monoaminergic neurons in SDAT, and may be an event independent of the cholinergic dysfunction.
Striatal biopterin and tyrosine hydroxylase protein reduction in dopa-responsive dystonia
TLDR
The data suggest that brain BH4 is decreased substantially in dopamine-responsive dystonia, and dopa-responsive Dystonia can be distinguished from degenerative nigrostriatal dopamine deficiency disorders by the presence of reduced brain neopterin.
Tyrosine hydroxylase, tryptophan hydroxylase, biopterin, and neopterin in the brain of anorexia nervosa
TLDR
The opposite changes of tyrosine hydroxylase and tryptophan hydroxyase suggest an imbalance between the activity of catecholaminergic neurons and that of serotonergic neurons, and may be related to pathogenesis of AN.
Indoleamine concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with Alzheimer type and Binswanger type dementias before and after administration of citalopram, a synthetic serotonin uptake inhibitor
TLDR
The results suggest that both the serotonin and kynurenine pathways are impaired in ATD; whereas, the serotonin pathway alone is in VDBT, and that these impairments are ameliorated by the administration of citalopram.
Biochemistry of postmortem brains in Parkinson's disease: historical overview and future prospects.
TLDR
It is found that the activity, mRNA level, and protein content of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), as well as the levels of the tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) cofactor of TH and the activity of the BH4-synthesizing enzyme, GTP cyclohydrolase I (GCHI), were markedly decreased in the substantia nigra and striatum in the PD brain.
Quantitative imaging of tyrosine hydroxylase and calmodulin in the human brain
TLDR
The present results suggest that the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase in the caudate nucleus and putamen of humans may also be regulated by a calcium/calmodulin‐dependent system.
No Association between Tryptophan Hydroxylase Gene Polymorphism and Alzheimer’s Disease
TLDR
The negative findings suggested that this TPH polymorphism has no major effect on the development of AD, however, the genetic variation of the TPH gene related to the symptomatology of AD deserves further investigation.
Immunocytochemical localization of GTP cyclohydrolase I in the brain, adrenal gland, and liver of mice
TLDR
Results indicate the abundant presence of GCH in catecholaminergic and serotoninergic neurons as well as in the adrenal medulla and liver, where BH4 is synthesized as the cofactor of tyrosine, tryptophan, and phenylalanine hydroxylases.
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