Pulmonary typical (TC) and atypical carcinoids (AC) are lung tumors with neuroendocrine differentiation. Pulmonary carcinoids account for < 2 % of all lung cancers and the incidence is around 0,5/100 000. Depending on localization and extension they present incidentally or symptomatically with cough, hemoptysis and postobstructive pneumonia. Less than 1 % are associated with endocrine activity. TC and AC are differentiated by defined histopathologic criteria (mitotic rate, necrosis). Patients with TC have excellent long-term survival after non-anatomical lung resection. AC are associated with higher recurrence rates and anatomical lung resection should be preferred. Radical mediastinal lymph node dissection should be performed for both TC and AC. Complete surgical resection is the most significant prognostic factor for localized carcinoids. Surgical metastasectomy should also be considered in case of resectable metastatic disease.