Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) function in producing effector cytokines in response to pathogenic infections. However, the roles and related mechanisms of the ILC subpopulations, ILC1 and ILC2, which mirror Th1 and Th2 in adaptive immunity, remain unclear. In this study, we found the markedly elevated levels of the ILC1 transcription factor T-bet, the effector cytokine IFN-γ and the IL/receptor signaling molecules IL-12/IL-12R, which are indispensable for ILC1 differentiation, in the helper ILCs of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. The elevated level of the ILC1 population was significantly associated with hepatic damage in CHB patients, and was not related to telbivudine treatment. In contrast, although we also observed elevated levels of ILC2-related factors, including IL-33, ST2, GATA3 and IL-13 in helper ILCs, the extent of elevation shown by each was lower than that shown by the ILC1-related factors. Furthermore, the activity of the ILC2s did not correlate with either HBV copies or liver damage. The findings of this study suggest potential pro-inflammatory roles for ILC1s in CHB pathogenesis, potentiating these cells and their related molecules as targets of diagnostic, prognostic and/or therapeutic strategies for hepatitis B.