Type 1 diabetes mellitus

@article{Katsarou2017Type1D,
  title={Type 1 diabetes mellitus},
  author={Anastasia Katsarou and Soffia Gudbj{\"o}rnsdottir and Araz Rawshani and Dana A Dabelea and Ezio Bonifacio and Barbara J. Anderson and Laura M. Jacobsen and Desmond A. Schatz and {\AA}ke Lernmark},
  journal={Nature Reviews Disease Primers},
  year={2017},
  volume={3}
}
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), also known as autoimmune diabetes, is a chronic disease characterized by insulin deficiency due to pancreatic β-cell loss and leads to hyperglycaemia. Although the age of symptomatic onset is usually during childhood or adolescence, symptoms can sometimes develop much later. Although the aetiology of T1DM is not completely understood, the pathogenesis of the disease is thought to involve T cell-mediated destruction of β-cells. Islet-targeting autoantibodies that… 
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TLDR
This chapter of the Yearbook of Advanced Technology and Treatments in Diabetes reviews the key papers that have appeared in this field between July 2009 and June 2010 and selected other relevant articles dealing with mechanisms, markers, triggers, and pathology of human type 1 diabetes.
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TLDR
Insight is gained into the identity, biology, structure, and presentation of islet antigens in relation to disease heterogeneity and β-cell destruction in type 1 diabetes.
Antibodies to Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Reveal Latent Autoimmune Diabetes Mellitus in Adults With a Non—Insulin-Dependent Onset of Disease
TLDR
In a proportion of adults who present with NIDDM, a slowly evolving autoimmune insulitis can be revealed by testing for anti-GAD, which could have important connotations not only for early intervention, but also for the correct classification of diabetes.
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TLDR
Islet cell antibodies and low C-peptide at diagnosis of diabetes mellitus are concluded to be useful markers to predict insulin dependence.
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TLDR
The heterogeneity of islet pathology, especially insulitis, may reflect different dynamics and extent rather than different pathomechanisms of immune destruction of islets in IDDM.
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TLDR
There is now sufficient evidence to allow a broader use of islet autoantibodies as biomarkers to diagnose type 1 diabetes that is already at an asymptomatic stage, so that attempts to prevent clinical hyperglycemia become a feature of disease management.
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TLDR
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TLDR
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