Type 1 diabetes mellitus

  title={Type 1 diabetes mellitus},
  author={Anastasia Katsarou and Soffia Gudbj{\"o}rnsdottir and Araz Rawshani and Dana A Dabelea and Ezio Bonifacio and Barbara J. Anderson and Laura M. Jacobsen and Desmond A. Schatz and {\AA}ke Lernmark},
  journal={Nature Reviews Disease Primers},
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), also known as autoimmune diabetes, is a chronic disease characterized by insulin deficiency due to pancreatic β-cell loss and leads to hyperglycaemia. Although the age of symptomatic onset is usually during childhood or adolescence, symptoms can sometimes develop much later. Although the aetiology of T1DM is not completely understood, the pathogenesis of the disease is thought to involve T cell-mediated destruction of β-cells. Islet-targeting autoantibodies that… 
Understanding childhood diabetes mellitus: new pathophysiological aspects
The molecular clarification of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) has greatly improved the understanding of the pathophysiology of DM and there are genetic overlaps between T2DM and monogenetic DM.
Diabetes type 1: Can it be treated as an autoimmune disorder?
Significant advances have been made in development of immunotherapeutic targets and agents for the treatment and prevention of type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, including proinflammatory cytokine inhibition, cell-depletion and cell-therapy approaches, autoantigen-specific treatments and stem cell therapies.
Metabolic Characteristics of Recently Diagnosed Adult-Onset Autoimmune Diabetes Mellitus
Even shortly after diagnosis, ab+/ins- patients feature partly preserved β-cell function and chronic hyperglycemia, which possibly contributes to the observed impairment of whole-body insulin sensitivity.
Sphingolipids in Type 1 Diabetes: Focus on Beta-Cells
The up-to-date status on the findings about sphingolipids in T1DM will be provided, the under-investigated research areas will be identified and perspectives for future studies will be given.
Serum biomarkers for diagnosis and prediction of type 1 diabetes.
Current and future therapies for type 1 diabetes
Evidence now warrants a focus on the beta cell itself and how to avoid its dysfunction, which is putatively caused by cytokine-driven inflammation and other stress factors, leading to low insulin-secretory capacity, autoantigen presentation and immune-mediated destruction.
Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) and Islet Autoantibodies Are Tools to Characterize Type 1 Diabetes in Arab Countries: Emphasis on Kuwait
Understanding the disease sequela in a homogenous gene pool and highly consanguineous population of Kuwaitis could help solve the challenges and pathogenesis, as well as hasten the prevention, of type 1 diabetes.
Advances in immunotherapy of type I diabetes.
Modelling the endocrine pancreas in health and disease
Diverse modelling systems across different species that provide spatial and temporal resolution of cellular and molecular mechanisms to understand the evolutionary conserved genotype–phenotype relationship and translate them to humans are discussed.
Risk Factors of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Children Attending Aswan University Hospital
Egyptian children with T1 DM had wide range of genetics, environmental, maternal, and neonatal risk factors that may have contributed to the development of T1DM.


Immune intervention for type 1 diabetes mellitus.
  • J. Skyler
  • Medicine, Biology
    International journal of clinical practice. Supplement
  • 2011
This chapter of the Yearbook of Advanced Technology and Treatments in Diabetes reviews the key papers that have appeared in this field between July 2009 and June 2010 and selected other relevant articles dealing with mechanisms, markers, triggers, and pathology of human type 1 diabetes.
Antigen targets of type 1 diabetes autoimmunity.
Insight is gained into the identity, biology, structure, and presentation of islet antigens in relation to disease heterogeneity and β-cell destruction in type 1 diabetes.
Antibodies to Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Reveal Latent Autoimmune Diabetes Mellitus in Adults With a Non—Insulin-Dependent Onset of Disease
In a proportion of adults who present with NIDDM, a slowly evolving autoimmune insulitis can be revealed by testing for anti-GAD, which could have important connotations not only for early intervention, but also for the correct classification of diabetes.
Islet cell antibodies and fasting C-peptide predict insulin requirement at diagnosis of diabetes mellitus
Islet cell antibodies and low C-peptide at diagnosis of diabetes mellitus are concluded to be useful markers to predict insulin dependence.
Heterogeneity of islet pathology in two infants with recent onset diabetes mellitus
The heterogeneity of islet pathology, especially insulitis, may reflect different dynamics and extent rather than different pathomechanisms of immune destruction of islets in IDDM.
Predicting Type 1 Diabetes Using Biomarkers
There is now sufficient evidence to allow a broader use of islet autoantibodies as biomarkers to diagnose type 1 diabetes that is already at an asymptomatic stage, so that attempts to prevent clinical hyperglycemia become a feature of disease management.
Diabetic autoimmune markers in children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes.
Absence of diabetes autoimmune markers is not a prerequisite for the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents, and there was no significant correlation between any of the diabetes antibodies and obesity, presence of acanthosis nigricans, or family history of diabetes.
Infant feeding and the risk of type 1 diabetes.
The role of factors related to infant nutrition in the development of beta cell autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes and the potential mechanistic pathways involved are discussed.