Endogenous cannabinoids and type-1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) are widely produced and distributed in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nerves in mammals. In addition, the detection of endocannabinoids and corresponding receptors in non nervous peripheral tissues indicates an involvement of the system in the control of a wide range of physiological activities, including reproduction. Recently, the existence of CB1 was also observed in lower vertebrates and in urochordate suggesting that the endocannabinoid system is phylogenetically conserved. Using RT-PCR, CB1 mRNA expression profiles were characterized in a wide range of tissues of the anuran amphibian, the frog, Rana esculenta. Besides a strong expression in the CNS, CB1 was also present in testis, kidney, liver, ovary, muscle, heart, spleen, and pituitary. The CB1 expression pattern has been characterized in both testis and CNS during the annual sexual cycle. In testis, CB1 is poorly expressed during the winter stasis of the spermatogenesis rising during the breeding season and resumption period. An expression profile mismatching to that observed in testis was detected in whole-brain preparations during the sexual cycle; in particular in the diencephalon, the encephalic area mainly involved in the control of reproductive functions. Furthermore, fluctuations inside isolated encephalic areas and spinal cord were observed all over the reproductive cycle. In conclusion, CB1 receptor is expressed in R. esculenta CNS and testis. As far as the gonad it concerns, our results suggest the involvement of the endocannabinoids in the control of reproductive function.