Two thousand million?

  title={Two thousand million?},
  author={David Crystal},
  journal={English Today},
  pages={3 - 6}
  • D. Crystal
  • Published 22 February 2008
  • Art
  • English Today
ABSTRACT Updates on the statistics of English. Starting with excerpt from David Crystal, How many millions use English? (ET1, 1985). The author says: Reading this article again, that almost a quarter of a century on, the most noticeable change, it seems to me, has been in the amount and colour of the author's hair! That aside, I am struck by my final comment: ‘I shall stay with this figure for a while’ – a billion. It appears I stayed with it for a decade. In the first edition of my English as… 
The Three Percent Problem: Why do English Speakers Read So Few Books in Translation?
Since the end of the 1990s, along with the availability of new technologies, globalization has stimulated local cultural industries and cultural exchange has increased. As a result, the number of
Native English speakers' authority in English
Given the unprecedented spread of English, native English speakers (NESs) have been estimated to number 508 million by 2050 (Graddol, 1997: 27), while a bold estimation of speakers of English is 2
English Around the World: Introduction
This textbook provides a lively and accessible introduction to world Englishes, describing varieties used in regions as diverse as America, the Caribbean, Australia, Africa, and Asia, and setting them within their historical and social contexts.
World Englishes: An Introduction
: After a brief overview of the main developments in the field of World Englishes (WEs) research, particularly with respect to different typologies and models of WEs, as well as advances in
‘World English’ or ‘World Englishes’? Does it make any difference?
As the English language spreads across the world like wildfire, many scholars find themselves speculating about its future. Many have claimed that the language is destined to undergo significant
English in Asia, Asian Englishes, and the issue of proficiency
ABSTRACT The contemporary visibility and importance of English throughout the Asian region coupled with the emergence and development of distinct varieties of Asian Englishes have played an important
Global Englishes and ‘Japanese English’
ABSTRACT The unprecedented spread of English requires a rethink of traditional concepts, such as the target speech community, target culture, and native speakers of the language. On the one hand, the
Non-Canonical Syntax in South Asian Varieties of English: A Corpus-Based Pilot Study on Fronting
Abstract In the present paper, I present a pilot study on fronting in six South Asian Varieties of English, i.e. Indian English (IndE), Bangladeshi English (BgE), Sri Lankan English (SLE), Nepali
Creativity in English by bending the norms : I am sorry or I mean what I use
The current status of English as an international language and the fact that English is the possession of no-one has laid way for the coinage of new lexical items, extensions or restrictions of
Language attitudes and linguistic features in the 'China English' debate
ABSTRACT:  In this paper we shall first try to define the term ‘China English’ (with our own definition of this term deliberated in the ‘Discussion’ section) as a performance variety in the larger


English as a global language
This book discusses the development of English as a global language in the 20th Century and some of the aspects of its development that have changed since the publication of the first edition.
Chapter 11. The Decline of the Native Speaker