Two new tryptophan derivatives from the seed kernels of Entada rheedei: effects on cell viability and HIV infectivity.

Abstract

Two new tryptophan derivatives, N-sulfonyl-L-tryptophan (tryptorheedei A) (1) and 3-(N-sulfonylindolyl)-D-lactic acid (tryptorheedei B) (2) together with the known 5-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (3), 1-O-methylglucopyranoside, entadamide A, homogentisic acid and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-sitosterol, were isolated from the seed kernels of Entada rheedei (Mimosaceae). Their structures were established using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and by comparison with spectroscopic data reported in the literature. Compounds 1 and 2 showed no toxicity to TZM and Human PBMC cells. Both compounds 1 and 2 were found to promote early infection events in HIV, likely by inhibiting the enzyme indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and preventing tryptophan depletion. Inhibition of IDO acutely in HIV infection inhibits viral replication, but chronic activation of IDO leads to immune impairment in AIDS. IDO is also the gatekeeper enzyme for kynurenine metabolism, a pathway involved in serotonin and melatonin biosynthesis and the regulation of glutamate and dopamine levels in the brain. Therefore inhibition of IDO might explain both the reported medicinal and neuropsychiatric effects of E. rheedei.

DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2013.03.017

Cite this paper

@article{Nzowa2013TwoNT, title={Two new tryptophan derivatives from the seed kernels of Entada rheedei: effects on cell viability and HIV infectivity.}, author={Laurence Kegah Nzowa and R{\'e}my Bertrand Teponno and L{\'e}on Az{\'e}fack Tapondjou and Luisella Verotta and Zhi-Xin Liao and D. Graham and M. W. Zink and Luciano Barboni}, journal={Fitoterapia}, year={2013}, volume={87}, pages={37-42} }