Human low density lipoprotein shows a genetic polymorphism, the so-called Ag-system. it consists of 5 pairs of allelic epitopes, x/y, al/d, c/g, t/z, and h/i, which are localized on apolipoprotein B. We have generated a large number of monoclonal antibodies against low density lipoprotein. Two of them, D2E1 and H11G3, recognize epitopes related to this genetic polymorphism. Direct ELISA and ELISA inhibition experiments with different low density lipoproteins of known phenotype showed that D2E1 is directed against the allelic epitope c and H11G3 against d. The two antibodies were used for the characterization of low density lipoprotein in sera from different blood donors and the results compared to those obtained by passive hemagglutination using human allotypic anti-sera. Sera from homo- or heterozygous donors (which display the relevant epitope) could be distinguished from the sera of homozygous donors (which lack the epitope) with the monoclonal antibodies described.