Two modes of radial migration in early development of the cerebral cortex

@article{Nadarajah2001TwoMO,
  title={Two modes of radial migration in early development of the cerebral cortex},
  author={Bagirathy Nadarajah and Janice E. Brunstrom and Jaime Grutzendler and Rachel O. L. Wong and Alan L. Pearlman},
  journal={Nature Neuroscience},
  year={2001},
  volume={4},
  pages={143-150}
}
Layer formation in the developing cerebral cortex requires the movement of neurons from their site of origin to their final laminar position. We demonstrate, using time-lapse imaging of acute cortical slices, that two distinct forms of cell movement, locomotion and somal translocation, are responsible for the radial migration of cortical neurons. These modes are distinguished by their dynamic properties and morphological features. Locomotion and translocation are not cell-type specific… 
Modes of neuronal migration in the developing cerebral cortex
TLDR
Evidence is reviewed for two modes of radial movement: somal translocation, which is adopted by the early-generated neurons; and glia-guided locomotion, which was used predominantly by pyramidal cells.
Neuronal migration in the developing cerebral cortex: observations based on real-time imaging.
TLDR
A unique morphological and migratory behavior for a population of cortical neurons, found to originate in the ganglionic eminence, which is multipolar in form, and are highly motile in the formation and retraction of their processes is reported.
Multipolar Migration: The Third Mode of Radial Neuronal Migration in the Developing Cerebral Cortex
TLDR
It is reported that these multipolar cells express neuronal markers and extend multiple thin processes in various directions independently of the radial glial fibers, a third mode of radial migration in the developing cerebral cortex.
Cortical neurons arise in symmetric and asymmetric division zones and migrate through specific phases
TLDR
It is shown here that neurons are generated in two proliferative zones by distinct patterns of division, and newborn neurons do not migrate directly to the cortex; instead, most exhibit four distinct phases of migration, including a phase of retrograde movement toward the ventricle before migration to the cortical plate.
OF NEURONAL MIGRATION IN THE DEVELOPING CEREBRAL CORTEX
TLDR
The different modes of migration that are adopted by neurons of the mammalian cerebral cortex are discussed, their underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms, and the significance of the various modes in building this complex structure are discussed.
Transformation of pin-like ventricular zone cells into cortical neurons
Cell polarity and initiation of migration
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 53 REFERENCES
Diverse migratory pathways in the developing cerebral cortex.
TLDR
Time-lapse confocal microscopy was used to observe directly the dynamic behaviors of migrating cells in living slices of developing cortex, and the majority of cells migrated along a radial pathway, consistent with the view that cortical neurons migrate along radial glial fibers.
Mode of cell migration to the superficial layers of fetal monkey neocortex
  • P. Rakić
  • Biology
    The Journal of comparative neurology
  • 1972
Golgi and electronmicroscopic methods were used to define the shapes and intercellular relationships of cells migrating from their sites of origin near the ventricular surface across the intermediate
Neuronal migration disorders: from genetic diseases to developmental mechanisms
Different origins and developmental histories of transient neurons in the marginal zone of the fetal and neonatal rat cortex
TLDR
Two major classes of early‐born neurons are distinguished during early corticogenesis in the rat, and the hypothesis that they invade the marginal zone, through tangential subpial migration, at different moments of fetal life is proposed.
The Earliest Patterns of Neuronal Differentiation and Migration in the Mammalian Central Nervous System
TLDR
The hypothesis suggests that many of the youngest CNS neurons may have a widespread distribution and may begin their differentiation, and even remain axonless for a time, while retaining a neuroepithelial morphology.
Migration of neuroblasts by perikaryal translocation: Role of cellular elongation and axonal outgrowth in the acoustic nuclei of the chick embryo medulla
TLDR
Golgi methods were used on staged chick embryos to reconstruct the morphogenetic phases of migration and early differentiation in situ and fluorescence labeling of the living cells in vitro elucidated the role of axonal growth in the migratory process.
Polarity of microtubule assemblies during neuronal cell migration.
TLDR
It is suggested that the dynamics of slow polymerization in combination with fast disintegration of oriented microtubules create "push" and "pull" forces that contribute to the piston-like saltatory displacement of the nucleus and cytoplasm within the membrane cylinder of the leading process of the migrating neuron.
Dynamics of granule cell migration: a confocal microscopic study in acute cerebellar slice preparations
  • H. Komuro, P. Rakic
  • Biology
    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
  • 1995
TLDR
Real-time examination of Dil-labeled, immature granule cells in cerebellar slice preparations reveals several temporal and cytological aspects of neuronal migration that have not been observed in previous in vivo or in vitro systems, and evidence that rates of cell movement depend critically on the age of the cerebellum is obtained.
Novel forms of neuronal migration in the rat cerebellum
TLDR
Novel radial and horizontal modes of neuronal migration that proceed independently of the physical glial guidance are described.
...
...