Two modes of radial migration in early development of the cerebral cortex

  title={Two modes of radial migration in early development of the cerebral cortex},
  author={Bagirathy Nadarajah and Janice E. Brunstrom and Jaime Grutzendler and Rachel O. L. Wong and Alan L. Pearlman},
  journal={Nature Neuroscience},
Layer formation in the developing cerebral cortex requires the movement of neurons from their site of origin to their final laminar position. We demonstrate, using time-lapse imaging of acute cortical slices, that two distinct forms of cell movement, locomotion and somal translocation, are responsible for the radial migration of cortical neurons. These modes are distinguished by their dynamic properties and morphological features. Locomotion and translocation are not cell-type specific… 
Modes of neuronal migration in the developing cerebral cortex
Evidence is reviewed for two modes of radial movement: somal translocation, which is adopted by the early-generated neurons; and glia-guided locomotion, which was used predominantly by pyramidal cells.
Neuronal migration in the developing cerebral cortex: observations based on real-time imaging.
A unique morphological and migratory behavior for a population of cortical neurons, found to originate in the ganglionic eminence, which is multipolar in form, and are highly motile in the formation and retraction of their processes is reported.
Multipolar Migration: The Third Mode of Radial Neuronal Migration in the Developing Cerebral Cortex
It is reported that these multipolar cells express neuronal markers and extend multiple thin processes in various directions independently of the radial glial fibers, a third mode of radial migration in the developing cerebral cortex.
Cortical neurons arise in symmetric and asymmetric division zones and migrate through specific phases
It is shown here that neurons are generated in two proliferative zones by distinct patterns of division, and newborn neurons do not migrate directly to the cortex; instead, most exhibit four distinct phases of migration, including a phase of retrograde movement toward the ventricle before migration to the cortical plate.
The different modes of migration that are adopted by neurons of the mammalian cerebral cortex are discussed, their underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms, and the significance of the various modes in building this complex structure are discussed.
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Time-lapse confocal microscopy was used to observe directly the dynamic behaviors of migrating cells in living slices of developing cortex, and the majority of cells migrated along a radial pathway, consistent with the view that cortical neurons migrate along radial glial fibers.
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Golgi and electronmicroscopic methods were used to define the shapes and intercellular relationships of cells migrating from their sites of origin near the ventricular surface across the intermediate
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The hypothesis suggests that many of the youngest CNS neurons may have a widespread distribution and may begin their differentiation, and even remain axonless for a time, while retaining a neuroepithelial morphology.
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    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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Real-time examination of Dil-labeled, immature granule cells in cerebellar slice preparations reveals several temporal and cytological aspects of neuronal migration that have not been observed in previous in vivo or in vitro systems, and evidence that rates of cell movement depend critically on the age of the cerebellum is obtained.
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Novel radial and horizontal modes of neuronal migration that proceed independently of the physical glial guidance are described.